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History and Art History
100 History of Western Civilization (3:3:0). History of Western civilization from its ancient Mediterranean origins through the medieval and modern development of Europe to the contemporary world. Students may not re ceive credit for HIST 100 if they have taken either HIST 101 or 102.
101 Foundations of Western Civilization (3:3:0). Evolution of Western culture from the ancient Mediterranean world to the formation of modern Europe in the 17th century. Students may not receive credit for HIST 101 if they have taken HIST 100.
102 Development of Western Civilization (3:3:0). History of Western institutions and ideas from the 17th century to the present. Students may not receive credit for HIST 102 if they have taken HIST 100.
120 U.S. History (3:3:0). Examination of American society from its founding documents, values, institutions, and peoples to the present. Experience in historical analysis is required. Students cannot receive credit for HIST 120 if they have taken either HIST 121 or HIST 122.
121 Formation of the American Republic (3:3:0). Social, political, economic, and intellectual growth of American institutions from colonization through Reconstruction. Students may not receive credit for HIST 121 if they have taken HIST 120.
122 Development of Modern America (3:3:0). History of the United States since 1877. Students may not receive credit for HIST 122 if they have taken HIST 120.
125 Introduction to World History (3:3:0). Analytical approach to a world history overview that surveys major features of the principal existing civilizations of the world, as they were originally formed and as they have been altered during the past two to four centuries by key global processes including the "forces of modernity."
130 History of the Modern Global System (3:3:0). Aims to provide an understanding of the processes that have shaped the modern world. Beginning in 1500, it traces developments that reorganized peoples, reshaped cultures, and generated new economies in the interaction between Western and non-Western societies. Focus of the course will be on Western and non-Western regions of the world, and their participation in the global networks resulting from mercantile expansion, the industrial revolution, imperialism, nationalism, and their legacies in the postcolonial period.
150 Freshman Seminar (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Freshman standing. Focuses on the skills and methods of learning, as well as subject matter, as a way of introducing the discipline of history. Topics vary.
251, 252 Survey of East Asian History (3:3:0). HIST 251 surveys the history of China and Japan from prehistoric times to ca. 1600. HIST 252 surveys the history of China and Japan from early modern times (ca. 1600) to the present.
261, 262 Survey of African Civilization (3:3:0). HIST 261 surveys African history from earliest times to the decline of western Sudanic states in the 16th century. HIST 262 surveys African history from the beginnings of interaction with Europe in the 15th century to the recent emergence of new states.
271, 272 Survey of Latin-American History (3:3:0). HIST 271 surveys the colonial era to 1825. HIST 272 surveys the development of an independent Latin America since 1825. Emphasis on interactions between the United States and Latin America.
281, 282 Survey of Middle Eastern Civilization (3:3:0). Survey of Middle Eastern history from the rise of Islam to the present, with an emphasis on processes that led to the emergence of the economic, cultural, social, and political institutions that characterize the region today. HIST 281 surveys the period from the rise of Islam in 570 to the medieval period (ca. 1258). HIST 282 surveys the medieval period (ca. 1258 to present).
298 History and the Web (1:1:0). Introduction to techniques and methods of creating historical web sites. Overview of historical resources on the web, including Internet archives, hypertext scholarly articles, and online exhibits. Examines new narrative and interpretive possibilities for doing history that have been opened by the World Wide Web. Combination of lecture and lab.
299 Databases for Historians (1:1:0). Introduction to techniques and methods of creating historical databases. Overview of World Wide Web, CD-ROM, and personal databases helpful for historical research. Examines a database both as an electronic archive and an interpretive and analytical tool. Combination of lecture and lab.
300 Introduction to Historical Method (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ENGL 302; COMM 100, 101 or 104; or permission of the instructor. Introduction to research skills and methods, as well as historical interpretation, culminating in written and oral presentations. Topics vary according to instructor. History majors are strongly urged to take HIST 300 early in their program of upper-level courses. A grade of C or better is required to graduate with a B.A. in History. Not offered in the summer.
301 Classical Greece (3:3:0). Political, social, economic, and cultural history of classical Greece from development of the city-state through the fifth century.
302 Classical Rome (3:3:0). Political, social, economic, and cultural history of classical Rome from the founding of the city through the fall of the Roman republic.
304 Western Europe in the Middle Ages (3:3:0). Survey of the development of European society from the collapse of Roman rule in the 5th century to the advent of the Black Death in the 14th century. Emphasis is on the political, social, cultural, and intellectual growth of a society that developed from Roman, Catholic, and Germanic roots.
305 The Renaissance (3:3:0). Survey considering the Renaissance as a phenomenon rather than a chronological period. Emphasis on growth of humanism in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries, development of new political concepts, and laicization of society. Includes transmission of these developments to transalpine Europe in the late 15th and 16th centuries.
306 The Reformation (3:3:0). Late medieval ecclesiastical conditions and reform movements; late scholasticism; Protestant Reformation, Catholic Reformation, dynastic rivalries, and religious wars. Concludes with the Peace of Westphalia.
308 Nineteenth-Century Europe (3:3:0). History of Europe from Congress of Vienna to outbreak of World War I.
309 Europe in Crisis: 19141948 (3:3:0). Prerequisite: 45 credits or permission of instructor. Two world wars, the Great Depression, and political and cultural revolutions transformed Europe as never before. Explores the causes and consequences of these tumultuous events and concludes with a consideration of the reconstruction that caps the period.
314 History of Germany (3:3:0). Political, diplomatic, economic, social, and cultural development of Germany from the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire to the present.
321 Early Modern England (3:3:0). History of England from the late 15th to the mid-18th century, focusing on the social, political, economic, and cultural changes of the period with particular attention to the English Reformation and the causes and consequences of the English Civil War.
322 Modern Britain (3:3:0). History of Britain from the mid-18th century to the present. Focus on the social, political, and economic transformations of industrialization, the culture of 19th-century industrial society, the problems of late 19th-century economic competition and imperialism, the creation of the welfare state, and the experience of post-World War II political, social, and economic realignments.
328 Rise of Russia (3:3:0). Political, social, and cultural experience of Russia from the appearance of the Kievan state to the mid-19th century. 329 Modern Russia and the Soviet Union (3:3:0). Analysis of Russian civilization from mid-19th through the 20th century. Focus on tsarist society, the revolution, and Soviet politics and the contemporary challenge.
330 The United States since World War II (3:3:0). Examination of major domestic and foreign policy factors that shaped the American experience from World War II to the present. Political, social, and economic forces as they affected the nation's history.
335 The African American Experience in the United States: African Background to 1885 (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. History of the African American experience in the United States including African origins; the trans-Atlantic slave trade; the development of slavery in the colonial, revolutionary, and antebellum periods; abolitionist movements; and African American participation in the Civil War and during Reconstruction.
336 The African American Experience in the United States: Reconstruction to the Present (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. History of African American life in post-slavery America and the rise and consequences of racial segregation in the 19th and 20th centuries. Examines the African American response to continued racial inequality and repression. The great migration, urbanization, black nationalism, and the civil rights era, as well as contemporary debates about race, are covered.
340 History of American Racial Thought (3:3:0). Introduction to the history of American racial thought, with particular emphasis on the relationship between the social theory and the social practices of racism in American life. Examines the origins
345 History of American Foreign Relations (3:3:0). Survey of American diplomacy from the Revolutionary War to the present, with emphasis on 20th-century issues.
350 U.S. Women's History (3:3:0). Prerequisite: 45 credits or permission of instructor. History of women and their changing status and gender roles in American society from the colonial period through the "second wave" of femi nism in the 1970s. Explores the images and lives of women of different class, ethnic, and regional origins. Also focuses on women's political, economic, and legal conditions and changes in them.
351 History of the Old South (3:3:0). History of the South to the outbreak of the Civil War, with particular emphasis on the rise of sectionalism. Development of a distinct Southern culture through emergence of economic, political, social, agricultural, and intellectual institutions.
352 The South since 1865 (3:3:0). History of the South during Reconstruction, the Redeemer era, and the New South, with particular emphasis on race relations. Political, economic, cultural, and intellectual development from the aftermath of war.
353 History of Traditional China (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. China from earliest times to the period of modern Western intrusion. Development of traditional Chinese culture, society, and government.
354 Modern China (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. China from 1644 to the People's Republic of China. Emphasis on the coming of the West and the various stages of Chinese reaction.
356 Modern Japan (3:3:0). Japan from the Meiji Restoration to World War II. Emphasis on Japan's modernization in the face of challenge.
357 Postwar Japan (3:3:0). Prerequisite: 45 credits or permission of instructor. History of Japan from World War II to the present. Examines the Japanese experience of several key moments in this era: Japan's defeat in the Pacific War, its reconstruction during the U.S. occupation, its rise to economic prominence during the 1960s and 1970s, and its cultural and international identity crisis during the 1980s and 1990s.
364 Revolution and Radical Politics in Latin America (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. During the 20th century, Latin American has witnessed both peaceful political movements and violent revolutions aimed at achieving social justice. Considers several of these movements in comparative perspective: the Mexican Revolution, the Arbenz government in Guatemala, the Allende regime in Chile, the Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions, and the Brazilian Worker's Party.
365 Conquest and Colonization in Latin America (3:3:0). Prerequisites: 45 credits or permission of the instructor. Examination in the forms of conquest and colonization practiced by the Aztec, Inca, Spanish, and Portuguese in what is now Latin America. Themes to be discussed include the role of ideology and religion in imperial rule, the use of warfare to create empires and colonies, and the implementation of political and economic systems to rule subject people.
366 Comparative Slavery (3:3:0). Prerequisites: 45 credits or permission of the instructor. Examination of systems of slavery from the ancient world to the modern world with special emphasis on the Atlantic slave trade and on slave societies in Latin America and Anglo America. Considers the impact of slaves and slavery on cultural, economic, and political systems in Africa and the Americas from the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century.
386 Topics in History (3:3:0). Study of historical topics of special interest. Topics announced in advance. May be repeated for credit when topic is different.
387 Topics in Global History (3:3:0). Study of historical topics or periods of special interest in global, Latin American, African, Asian, or Middle Eastern history. Topics announced in advance. May be repeated for credit when topic is different.
388 Topics in European History (3:3:0). Study of historical topics or periods of special interest. Topics announced in advance. May be repeated for credit when topic is different.
389 Topics in U.S. History (3:3:0). Study of historical topics or periods of special interest. Topics announced in advance. May be repeated for credit when topic is different.
391 History of Virginia to 1800 (3:3:0). Discovery and settlement of Virginia. Colonial period with emphasis on development of representative government and race relations, the "golden age" of the Virginia dynasty, and coming of the Civil War.
392 History of Virginia since 1800 (3:3:0). Decision to secede, Civil War and Reconstruction, Readjustors and Populism, disfranchisement and Constitution of 1902, and rise of Senator Harry F. Byrd. Recent developments.
393 Topics in Film and History (3:3:0). Study of historical periods or topics from perspective of feature films and documentaries. Topics available in advance in History Department. May be repeated when topic is different. Maximum of six credits may be applied toward the history major.
401 Colonial America (3:3:0). Intensive study of colonial American history from its European origins through the Revolutionary War.
403 Revolutionary Era in American History, 17631812 (3:3:0). Study of formative years of the new republic from the Treaty of Paris of 1783 to the election of 1820.
404 Jacksonian America, 18121854 (3:3:0). Study of the age of Andrew Jackson. Emphasis on democratic institutions that emerged as dominant influences in American society.
406 The Civil War (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. Course, conduct, and consequences of the American Civil War. Emphasis on interconnectedness of political, military, and economic affairs.
409 Between the Wars: The United States, 19191941 (3:3:0). Intensive study of political, social, economic, and diplomatic developments in the 1920s and the 1930s.
416 U.S. Urban History (3:3:0). Examination of the process of urbanization in the United States, and the growth of American cities and suburbs from colonial times to the present.
417 History of Metropolitan Washington (3:3:0). Examination of urban and suburban growth in Washington, D.C., and its suburbs in Maryland and Virginia since 1790, in the context of U.S. urban history.
418 Ethnic Groups in America (3:3:0). Exploration of ethnicity and race in American urban society by comparing the experiences of different ethnic groups as migrants to American cities.
426 The Russian Revolution (3:3:0). Prerequisite: 45 credits or permission of instructor. The era of revolutionary activity from the late 19th century to the end of the 1920s, with emphasis on the Russian Revolutions of 1917. Explores why a revolutionary situation developed; the political, social, and cultural issues at stake; why it took the forms that it did; and the revolution's contribution to the nature of the Soviet state and post-Soviet problems.
431/ENGL 431/FREN 431 Medieval Intellectual Topics (3:3:0). Selected topics in the intellectual history of the Middle Ages. Topics vary, depending on discipline of instructor. May be taken for credit by English or history majors.
435 Society and Culture in Early Modern Europe (3:3:0). Examination of the social and cultural lives of Europeans from the end of the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution. Popular, as well as elite, culture is emphasized, as are the bridges and interrelationships between them. Focus on religious, artistic, literary, and recreational behavior. Political activity and riots, strikes, royal receptions, and rituals are also covered.
436 European Society and Culture: 19th and 20th Centuries (3:3:0). Examination of major cultural trends in Europe since the French Revolution. Major themes include romanticism, socialism, Marxism, and the social effect of modernization, science, and societies.
455/COMM 455 History of Print Journalism (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Three COMM or HIST credits. Development of print journalism from its inception to the present, with emphasis on the interaction of technology, audience, and government intervention. Topics include birth of the press; development of the modern newspaper and American development, including the Revolutionary and Civil wars; the rise of the independent press; and the Yellow Journalism period.
459 Pre-Modern South Asia (3:3:0:). Prerequisite: 45 credits or permission of instructor. History of South Asia (present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) from the earliest civilizations along the Indus River to the advent of colonialism. Special attention is given to significant historical events and their effect on the development of political, religious, and economic ideas.
460 Modern Iran (3:3:0). Prerequisite: 45 credits or permission of instructor. Modern Iran, from 1800 to the present, in the context of a number of broad themes: the institutional structure of the state; the role of the great powers in Iran and the Iranian response to the economic, military, technological, and ideological challenge posed by the West; the interaction of religion (and other ideologies) and politics; economic development and its impact on politics and society; and ways in which historians have sought to understand and interpret modern Iranian history.
461 Arab-Israeli Conflict (3:3:0). Prerequisite: 45 credits or permission of instructor. Some knowledge of the history of the Middle East since World War I is strongly advised. Overview of the history of the Arab-Israeli conflict, examining the conflict from various perspectives: as a conflict over land and between competing nationalisms and identities; in terms of the national interests of various states, including both Israelis and Palestinians, as well as other Arab governments and the great powers; and in terms of peace making and conflict resolution.
462 Women in Islamic Society (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. Survey of the history of women in Islamic society from the rise of Islam to the present day. Examines the historical processes that affected the role and status of women in society, as well as specific topics around which issues of gender status and identity coalesced, especially in the modern period.
465 The Middle East in the 20th Century (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of history or permission of instructor. Political, social, and cultural history of the Middle East since World War I. Emergence of Israel, Arab nationalism, and political and economic influence of the Middle East in world affairs.
466 Origins of Conflict in Southern Africa (3:3:0). Exploration of the historical origins of conflict in South Africa, focusing on themes of economic change, cultural interaction, and political consolidation over the past five centuries.
480 Alexander the Great (3:3:0). Rise of Persia, the Persian wars with Greece, subjugation of Greece by Philip II of Macedonia, life of Alexander the Great and his conquest of the Persian empire.
490, 491 Honors Directed Readings, Honors Directed Research (3:0:0), (3:0:0). Prerequisite: Admission to the history honors program and permission of instructor. Linked, individualized courses, normally given by the same instructor. HIST 490 involves directed readings; HIST 491 culminates in a research paper related to the subject of the readings. Students must have completed at least one course in the field (or with the professor) chosen for these honors courses. The three credits of readings should normally be taken before the three credits of research, though they may be taken concurrently. Either may be taken concurrently with HIST 499.
496 Internship (1-9:0:0). Prerequisite: History majors with permission of undergraduate coordinator. Approved work-study programs in cooperation with specific organizations including area museums; archives; historic sites; and local, state, and federal agencies. Credit determined by department.
498 Directed Readings/Research in History (1-3:0:0). Prerequisites: History majors with 90 credits and permission of instructor. Readings/research conducted on an individual basis in consultation with instructor. Student may not present more than three credits for graduation credit.
499 Senior Seminar in History (3:3:0). Prerequisite: History majors with 90 credits, HIST 300 and completion or concurrent enrollment in all university general education courses. Research on a specialized historical topic culminating in a seminar paper and oral presentation. As a synthesis course, students will be expected to integrate their knowledge and skills acquired in their general education courses. Subject determined by instructor. Student may present not more than three credits for graduation credit. Must receive a passing grade to graduate with a B.A. in History. Not offered in the summer.
510 Approaches to Modern World History (3:3:0). Introduction to the historical study of the world beyond Europe and the United States. Students read major theoretical works as well as case studies of particular regions. In addition to examining such topics as imperialism, national identity, and various forms of popular resistance, students become familiar with a range of scholarly approaches, including world-systems theory and subaltern studies.
523 Issues in American History (3:3:0). Discussion of readings and analysis of selected problems in American history, open to advanced undergraduates and graduates. Topic determined by instructor. Course may be repeated when content differs.
524 Issues in European History (3:3:0). Discussion of readings and analysis of selected problems in European history, open to advanced undergraduates and graduates. Topic determined by instructor. Course may be repeated when content differs.
525 Problems in Latin American History (3:3:0). Analysis of selected problems in Latin American history. Emphasis on reading and discussion of historical interpretations and development of bibliography. Course may be repeated when content differs.
555 Problems in Asian History (3:3:0). Subjects announced by instructor. Discussion of readings and historical interpretations and compilation of a comprehensive bibliography on given theme. Course may be repeated when content differs.
565 Problems in African History (3:3:0). Analysis of selected problems in African history. Emphasis on reading and discussion of historical interpretations and development of bibliography. Course may be repeated when content differs.
585 Problems in Middle Eastern History (3:3:0). Analysis of selected problems in Middle Eastern history. Emphasis on reading and discussion of historical interpretations and development of bibliography. Course may be repeated when content differs. Prerequisite to 600-level courses: Graduate standing.
601 Themes in U.S. History I (3:3:0). Survey of U.S. history prior to 1877. Designed for individuals entering the graduate program who need to strengthen their preparation in this area or who seek to enhance their knowledge of the latest interpretations in the field. Factual knowledge and its interpretation are stressed.
602 Themes in U.S. History II (3:3:0). Continuation of HIST 601.
605 Themes in European History I (3:3:0). Survey of European history from 1500 to 1815. Designed for individuals entering the graduate program who need to strengthen their preparation in this area or who seek to enhance their knowledge of the latest interpretations in the field. Factual knowledge and its interpretation are stressed.
606 Themes in European History II (3:3:0). Survey of European history from 1815 to present. Designed for individuals entering the graduate program who need to strengthen their preparation in this area or who seek to enhance their knowledge of the latest interpretations in the field. Factual knowledge and its interpretation are stressed.
610 The Study and Writing of History (3:3:0). Methodology of the historian including techniques of research, use of documentation and other sources, development of bibliography, and synthesis of material.
613 The Colonial Origins of American Society (3:3:0). Study of evolution of elements in colonial society that affect contemporary American institutions and patterns of behavior.
615 Problems in American History (1-6:1-6:0). Readings and discussion of bibliographies, interpretations, and research trends in topics selected by instructor. Course may be repeated when content differs.
616 U.S. Westward Movement (3:3:0). Investigation of continuity and change in the American West, focusing on such topics as economic development, ethnicity, rural and urban life, and the role of the federal government.
617 Topics in the American Civil War Era (3:3:0). Joint project of instructor and students into the various aspects of a common topic in the Civil War era with emphasis on historiography and historical method.
618 The Age of Jackson, 18151854 (3:3:0). Survey of the social, cultural, intellectual, economic, and political changes in the United States during a period of rapid growth and expansion. Among the topics studied are the second-party system; the growth of sectionalism, nationalism, and expansionism; industrialization and the spread of the market economy; the rise of romantic reform and evangelical religion; and the growth of abolitionist and proslavery movements.
619 The Constitution, Civil Liberties, and the Supreme Court (3:3:0). Investigation of the evolution of civil liberties in American history and the interaction of the three branches of government in applying the various constitutional guarantees. Students read extensively in Supreme Court decisions as well as in the secondary literature, and undertake independent research.
620 Development of the Early Republic, 17831815 (3:3:0). Investigation of the breakdown of the Confederation, the Constitutional Convention, and the role of the revolutionary ideology of republicanism. Leadership and policies of the republic in a hostile international context are discussed. Students read extensively in the monographic literature and prepare a research paper.
621 Virginia and the American Revolution (3:3:0). Detailed examination of Virginia society on the eve of the American Revolution and its role in the events from 1750 to 1789. Combines lectures on and discussion of major themes, ideas, and personalities.
622 American Minds (3:3:0). Advanced introduction to major approaches to and themes in American intellectual history, rather than a survey of the subject. Avoids positing an American mind in the beginning and explores instead the diversity of American thinkers. Focuses on several pivotal decades in American thought and sees American thinkers in their social contexts. Explores how nonelites have shaped American thought. Provides a diverse and multifarious look at who were the important American minds.
623 Recent U.S. History, 1945 to Present (3:3:0). Selected political, social, economic, diplomatic, and cultural forces that shaped the post-World War II American experience.
624 U.S. Diplomatic History (3:3:0). Study of selected issues in American foreign relations and changing historical interpretations of American diplomacy.
626 Approaches to American Culture (3:3:0). Focuses on the various approaches historians for the United States have taken to the history of American culture, the questions they have asked, the assumptions they have made, the disciplinary tools they have used, and the types of materials they have analyzed. Concentration on the patterns of culture these studies have uncovered and what they tell us about the American past and present.
627 Urban Development of the United States (3:3:0). Examination of the growth of cities in the United States, the process of urbanization, and the significance of cities in American history. Students become familiar with major issues and bibliography of American urban history.
628 Immigration and Ethnicity in the United States (3:3:0). Examination of immigration and ethnicity in America since 1840. Consideration of why immigrants came, from where, under what circumstances, and the ways in which they adapted to America. Examination of immigration policy and American attitudes toward immigration and ethnicity. Conducted as a readings colloquium.
629 The Gilded Age and Progressive Era (3:3:0). Examines the history of the United States from 1877 to 1918, with attention both to the history of reform movements and politics, and the social history of the period. Students become familiar with major issues and historical literature of the period.
630 U.S. Women's History (3:3:0). Wide-ranging survey of the burgeoning field of women's history, emphasizing critical evaluation of sources and interpretation. Readings are selected to represent a variety of approaches to the history of women, which may include material culture studies, medical history, history of sexuality, political history, and social and cultural history.
631 Era of the American Revolution (3:3:0). Examines the history and historiography of the revolutionary era, with a special emphasis on the social and ideological interpretations of the period. Includes the events leading up to the War for Independence, the war itself, and the social and political effects of the war on American society.
633 Reconstruction (3:3:0). Examines the panoply of political, social, economic, and constitutional concerns during the period 1863 to 1880, as the North and South struggled over the outcome of the Civil War. Among the many important questions to be addressed are those of political institutions and power in the postwar North and South, and the place of the former slaves in society, politics, and the economy.
634 Interwar America: 1918-1939 (3:3:0). Considers the history of the United States between the two world wars. The remainder of 19th-century issues and the beginning of 20th-century concerns are found in the period between the wars. Explores the various ways in which these issues complemented and contradicted each other in a rich and complex historical era.
635 Problems in European History (1-6:1-6:0). Investigation of selected problems in the history of Europe. Readings, discussions, development of bibliographies. Where possible, primary sources are used. Course may be repeated when content differs.
636 Political Culture in 20th-Century Germany and Austria: Continuities and Discontinuities (3:3:0). Recent interpretations of key political events of the 20th century. Asks if there were fundamental continuities in the structure of German and Austrian society that can be observed throughout the period under review.
637 Great Britain: Empire to Commonwealth, 18701970 (3:3:0). Examination of the rise of the "new imperi alism" in Great Britain from 1870 to the end of the empire and gradual formation of the Commonwealth of Nations.
638 Western Europe in the Post-War Period (3:3:0). Examination of the process of reconstruction, reconciliation, and integration in Western Europe in the 20 years after the Second World War. Conducted as a readings colloquium.
639 Society and Politics in Western Europe, 17501914 (3:3:0). Focus on changes in social conditions and their ramifications in political life. Attention to urbanization of workers, changes in the peasantry, growth of middle classes, decline of nobility, as well as major political developments and expansion of liberal reforms.
642 Humanism and the Renaissance (3:3:0). The Renaissance as a unique period in European cultural history from ca. 1350 to 1520. Concentration on the Italian situation as the standard for the Renaissance, with consideration given to the manifestations of the Renaissance in northern Europe, especially Germany, until the Reformation. Focus on recent studies of political, social, intellectual, and religious changes of the period. Students write class reports and a larger bibliographic paper.
643 Religion and Society in the Reformation Era (3:3:0). The Reformation, from approximately 1500 to 1650, was a time of major religious, intellectual, social, and political upheavals in European history. Investigates the reasons for these changes and the effects they had on European society. First half of course focuses on Germany, but major events throughout Europe are studied.
644 Society and Culture in Early Modern Europe (3:3:0). Overview of the most recent historical work on social and cultural history of the pre-modern West, ca. 1400 to 1800. Making full use of theoretical approaches and empirical methodologies of other disciplinesespecially social anthropology, sociology, and literary theorythis research sheds new light on topics as diverse as popular culture, class, manners, taste, rituals, religion, language, gender, and the state. This "new" cultural history not only formulates new topics of research and poses new questions about them, it also suggests an entirely new approach to more traditional historical topics, such as politics, religion, and ideas.
645 The Russian Revolution and the Origins of the Soviet State (3:3:0). Period between 1890 and 1924 with concentration on the sources of Bolshevism, problems of the old regime as they led up to the revolutions of 1905 and 1917, and establishment of the new regime and its survival in an environment of foreign and civil war.
690 The Administration of Archives and Manuscripts (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of U.S. history or permission of department. Introduction to the principles and practices of managing records and administering archival and manuscript collections, public and private. Designed for graduate students with a special interest in historical sources as well as for those specializing in applied history.
691 Museum Studies (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of U.S. history or permission of department. General introduction to museums of history and museum studies in the United States, intended for the interested citizen as well as for assistance to students in course and career choices. Explores the development, present state, and future possibilities of museums in the United States, with some reference to international developments.
692 Historical Editing (3:3:0). Introduction to the fundamentals of historical editing of documents, including the use of microform, word processing, and computer techniques. Designed for persons seeking an introduction to various areas of applied history and for persons intending to edit historical documents for publication.
693 Historic Preservation (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Six credits of U.S. history or permission of department. General introduction to historic preservation in the United States, intended for the interested citizen and to assist students in course and career choices. Explores the development, present state, and future possibilities of historic preservation in the United States, with some reference to international aspects of preservation.
695 History Symposium (3:3:0). Subject of academic and community interest pursued through discussions and lectures by distinguished guest instructors.
696 Clio Wired: An Introduction to History and New Media (3:3:0). Prerequisites: Students with limited computer competency should consult department before enrolling. Introduction to the changes that new media and technologies are bringing to how we research, write, present, and teach about the past. Students explore theoretical and historical issues as well as learn hands-on skills in digital history.
697 Creating History in New Media (3:3:0). Prerequisites: HIST 696, or permission of instructor. A seminar in which students create original historical projects in digital media.
711 Research Seminar in U.S. History (3:3:0). Prerequisite: HIST 610 or permission of department. Research in specialized topics using primary sources. Maximum of six credits may be earned.
731 Research Seminar in European History (3:3:0). Prerequisite: HIST 610 or permission of department. Research in specialized topics using primary sources. Maximum of six credits may be earned.
751 Research Seminar in Comparative World History (3:3:0). Prerequisite: HIST 610 or permission of department. Research seminar requiring comparative research and analysis. Organized around a significant topic or theme in the field of world history. Topics vary from year to year. A maximum of six credits may be earned.
790 Comprehensive Readings in U.S. History (3:0:0). To be taken in the final semester of the program. Designed to integrate the student's past work in the major field and to fill gaps in this area before the comprehensive exam. After a review of graduate experience, student and instructor design a reading list to round out preparation for the exam.
791 Comprehensive Readings in Comparative World History (3:0:0). To be taken in the final semester of the program. Designed to integrate the student's past work in the major field and to fill gaps in this area before the comprehensive exam. After a review of graduate course work, student and instructor design a reading list to round out preparation for the exam.
792 Comprehensive Readings in European History since 1500 (3:0:0). To be taken in the final semester of the program. Designed to integrate the student's past work in the major field and to fill gaps in this area before the comprehensive exam. After review of graduate experience, student and instructor design a reading list to round out preparation for the exam.
794 Internship in Applied History (3-6:0:0). Prerequisites: Three credits of applied history in an appropriate area and 12 credits in major field or permission of internship director. All internship placements must be approved by the department to ensure their suitability to the student's program. Introduction to applied history through work and study at a historical museum, site, library archive, editing project, or other approved agency.
796 Directed Readings (1-6:0:0). Independent reading on a topic agreed to by student and faculty member. Maximum of six credits may be earned.
798 Directed Research and Writing in History (3:0:0). Intended for those students in the department's predoctoral track who are not writing a master's thesis. Goal is to produce a substantial and original contribution to historical knowledge on the model of an article in a scholarly journal.
799 Thesis (1-6:0:0). May not be undertaken prior to successful completion of comprehensive examination. Graded S/NC.
800 Studies for the Doctor of Philosophy in Education (variable credit). Prerequisite: Admission to the Ph.D. in Education program to study history. Program of studies designed by student's discipline director and approved by student's doctoral committee, which brings the student to participate in research of discipline director and results in a paper reporting the original contributions of the student. Enrollment may be repeated.
801 New Developments in History (3:3:0). Prerequisites: Doctoral standing or permission of instructor and HIST 610 or equivalent. Survey of current developments in historical analysis and methodology.
802 Readings for Doctor of Arts in Community College Education (variable credit). Prerequisite: Admission to Doctor of Arts in Community College Education program to study history. Intensive reading of the recent scholarship in broad areas of historical study. With their advisors, students develop the readings list and define at least three areas in which to prepare readings courses. May be repeated.
803 Doctoral Readings in History (3:0:0). Independent readings for Ph.D. students on a topic agreed on by student and instructor. Usually taken to prepare a major or minor field.
810 History Doctoral Colloquium (1:1:0). Prerequisite: Doctoral standing. Introduction to an array of scholars and scholarship through discussions of innovative historical events, important theories, and significant methodological breakthroughs in history. May be taken for credit six times. Graded S/NC.
811 Doctoral Research Seminar (3:0:0). Prerequisite: Doctoral standing. Students pursue research projects in their areas of specialization.
998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal (1-3:0:0). Prerequisite: Advancement to candidacy. Work on a research proposal that forms the basis for the doctoral dissertation. May be taken for a maximum of six credits. Graded S/NC.
999 Doctoral Dissertation Research (1-12:0:0). Prerequisite: Completion of HIST 998. Doctoral dissertation research and writing under the direction of the student's dissertation committee. Graded S/NC.