Molecular and Microbiology
Professor: Alibek (distinguished), Bailey (distinguished), Soyfer (distinguished) Willett
Associate professor: Chandhoke (associate dean for research, chair), Christensen (associate chair), Fryxell, Royt
Assistant professor: Baranova, Grant, Jamison, Kinser, Seto
Term assistant professor: Beck, Coss, Crocker, Cupo
Research professor: Isbister, Schlauch, Weinstein
Research associate professor: Zaviyalov
Research assistant professor: DelGiacco, Van Hoek, Wu
Adjunct faculty: Davis, Fondufe, Ikonomi, Kindred, Kocache, Leitner, McClintock, Tondi, Wu
Affiliate faculty: Anderson, Bradburne, Burgess, Gunasinghe, Hicks, Ijaz, Karginov, Kulesh, Liu, McCreight, Niemeyer, Patrick, Popova, Tucker, Voltchikhina, Wilhelmsen, Wu
The department offers all course work designated BIOD, BIOL, BIOS, and MTCH in the "Course Descriptions" chapter of this catalog.
The BA and BS in Biology provide a sound liberal education with substantial experience in quantitative and analytical thought, along with preparation for a related profession. In addition to ensuring the strong background necessary for graduate study in the many fields of biological science, the broad range of courses available at George Mason allows students to develop careers in many areas, including secondary school teaching, environmental management, microbiology, molecular biology, biotechnology, genetics, and natural history. Alternatively, students may prepare for postgraduate studies in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, wildlife management, fisheries biology, or marine science. The department also offers a BS in Medical Technology. Additional information can be found at the Molecular and Microbiology Department's web site at gmu.edu/departments/MMB or by contacting the Molecular and Microbiology Department, David J. King Hall, Room 3005, 703-993-1050.
All biology majors are strongly urged to see an academic advisor regularly to help them plan their schedules so as to graduate on time. Biology majors should see an advisor for permission to register prior to their first semester and again as they complete 60 credits and 90 credits. Medical Technology majors must see the medical technology advisor to obtain permission to register each semester. See the department website or contact the undergraduate coordinator for more information.
Residence Requirement for Transfer Students
Students majoring in biology are required to complete 16 credits in the major at the 300 and 400 levels at George Mason University.
In addition to satisfying the university-wide general education requirements and the requirements for a BA degree in the College of Arts and Sciences, candidates must complete the following credits with a minimum GPA of 2.000. (Through the course work below, biology majors satisfy the university-wide general education requirements in natural science, quantitative reasoning, and information technology proficiency.)
Students expecting to enter graduate or professional school are strongly urged to complete MATH 113 and 114. Organic chemistry and PHYS 243, 244, 245, and 246 are recommended.
In addition to satisfying the university-wide general education requirements for the BS degree, students majoring in biology must complete the following course with a minimum GPA of 2.000. (Through the course work below, biology majors satisfy the university-wide requirements in natural science, quantitative reasoning, and information technology proficiency.)
Students are encouraged to consult with a biology faculty advisor to determine which option best meets his/her career goals. Students who wish to take biochemistry must take BIOL 483/583 to receive credit toward the major in biology.
Concentration in Biotechnology
The biotechnology concentration consists of a selection of courses that provide essential skills to students seeking employment in the field or who wish to include an applied component in their undergraduate training in biology.
In addition to satisfying the university-wide general education requirements for the BS degree, students majoring in biology with a concentration in biotechnology must complete the following. (Through the course work below, they satisfy the university-wide general education requirements in natural science, quantitative reasoning, and information technology proficiency.)
Policy on the Use of Organisms in Classes
The university requires all students to complete at least one course designated as writing intensive in their majors at the 300 level or above. Students majoring in biology fulfill this requirement by successfully completing BIOL 307. Students not taking BIOL 307 at George Mason should consult the biology undergraduate coordinator for a course to fulfill this requirement.
Honors Program in Biology
Biology majors who have completed 16 credits of math and science, including BIOL 213, with a GPA of 3.000 or higher, are eligible to enter the departmental honors program. Transfer students who have an incoming GPA of 3.100 in math and science and a B or better in BIOL 213 are also eligible. To graduate with honors in biology, a student is required to maintain a minimum GPA of 3.000 in math and science and to earn a GPA of at least 3.500 in at least three semesters of BIOL 494 Honors Seminar. For more information, contact the departmental honors advisor at 703-993-1050.
Minor in Biology
Candidates for the minor in biology must complete 19-20 credits in biology with a minimum GPA of 2.000, including BIOL 213, 303, 304, and either 307 or 311, in addition to one other 3-4 credit biology course at the 300, 400, or 500 level. For policies governing all minors, see "minors" under "The Undergraduate Academic Program" in the Academic Policies chapter of this catalog.
Minor in Bioinformatics
A minor in bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary program consisting of required courses in biology, computer science, and statistics. Candidates for the minor in bioinformatics must complete 19-20 credits with a minimum GPA of 2.000, distributed as follows:
For policies governing all minors, see "minors" under "The Undergraduate Academic Program" in the Academic Policies chapter of this catalog.
Premedical, Predental, and Preveterinary Students
Students planning to enter medical, dental, or veterinary schools may choose to major in biology. These students should meet with one of the health sciences advisors in their second semester for assistance and information about the university's Medical Sciences Advisory Committee. Contact 703-993-1050 for information on health science advisors.
Because schools in the health sciences vary both in their philosophies and in their specific requirements, it is wise for students to become aware of such information well in advance of applying for admission. Although specific requirements vary, most programs do require applicants to complete at least one year of biology. Students who decide not to major in biology should take BIOL 213 and 303. Other requirements generally include organic chemistry (CHEM 313, 314, 315, and 318 or 320) and a year of physics (PHYS 243 through 246). A course in calculus is required by some and highly recommended by others. Admission requirements can generally be met by either a BA or a BS degree.
Students who wish to become teachers should consult the Graduate School of Education chapter and attend an information session during their sophomore year. Information Sessions for teacher licensure are offered every month. For more information, call 703-993-2892, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, or consult the web site at gse.gmu.edu.
Biology for Nonmajors
Students who are not majoring in science or mathematics and wish to fulfill their natural science requirement with a two-semester laboratory sequence in biology should enroll in BIOL 103 and 104. With permission of the instructor, nonmajors may enroll in BIOL 213 and then take one of the following: BIOL 303, 304, or 305/306 to complete their requirement. Chemistry, physics, and mathematics majors should consult their faculty advisors to determine which biology courses to take.
Medical Technology, BS
This program requires the equivalent of three years of full-time preprofessional study at the college level preceding a senior year of professional education in an affiliated school of medical technology. All affiliated schools are accredited by the Commission on Allied Health and Education Accreditation (CAHEA).
Responsibility for applying to schools of medical technology and gaining admission rests with the students. However, guidance is provided by the medical technology program director in the Molecular and Microbiology Department. Admission to schools of medical technology is selective. Candidates should strive for strong academic standing. Students who fail to gain admission to a NAACLS-approved school are unable to complete the degree program. Such students may transfer to a biology major without loss of credits.
Application to medical technology schools should be initiated about a year before the desired entrance date. This fact, coupled with the large number of required courses in the preprofessional curriculum, makes it imperative that students in the program consult regularly with their faculty advisors. All medical technology majors and prospective majors are urged to enroll in MTCH 200 as early as possible. This course provides information on the profession and on the educational demands placed on candidates.
Students should be aware that the senior year spent off campus requires the following special interpretation of university policies. Transfer students must present at least 16 credits of 300-400 level biology or chemistry taken at George Mason. Students may present no more than six credits of D grades in the biology and chemistry courses required in the three years of preprofessional study. No unsatisfactory grades may be presented for courses in the senior year of professional study. Transfer students entering with more than 45 transfer credits are often unable to complete the preprofessional phase of their program in the usual three years of full-time study.
Senior students are registered at the university through special procedures. For details, consult the program director.
In addition to satisfying the university-wide general education requirements for the BS degree and completing MTCH 200, candidates must present the following courses in their preprofessional programs with a minimum GPA of 2.000. (Through the course work below, majors satisfy the university-wide general education requirements in natural science, quantitative reasoning, and information technology proficiency.) Because of the extensive professional education requirements stipulated by The Commission on Allied Health and Education Accreditation (CAHEA), students majoring in medical technology are exempt from the university-wide general education requirement in the fine arts.)
Students are encouraged to elect additional basic science courses during their preprofessional years. Recommended are BIOL 380, 465, 483, 484, 485; CHEM 321; and PHYS 243, 244, 245, 246.
Professional study during the senior year involves clinical education at an affiliated school of medical technology. Thirty credits of course work are required, including MTCH 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, and 406. The distribution of credits in these courses varies with the school of medical technology. No more than 30 professional credits may be applied toward the degree.
Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT) Articulation Program
A special program is available for MLTs who are graduates of associate degree programs. This program provides substantial credit for the scientific and clinical aspects of the associate degree, but requires that the student meet the clinical requirement for national certifying examinations through approved work experience. For details, contact the program director.
Major in Medical Technology as a Second Bachelor's Degree
While the standard program for medical technologists is three years on campus followed by a fourth year at a clinical affiliate (3 + 1), many students elect to complete a bachelor's degree before entering the clinical program (4 + 1). Students who have completed a BS in Biology or Chemistry at George Mason and then undertake a fifth year at a clinical affiliate may be eligible for a second bachelor's degree with a major in medical technology. Students wishing to receive the second degree must apply before entering their fifth year. For further information, contact a medical technology advisor.
Biology Club and Premedical Honor Society
The Biology Club functions as both a social and informational network for all interested students. In addition, it serves the Molecular and Microbiology Department by sponsoring a seminar program and working at university functions.
Alpha Epsilon Delta Zeta Premedical Honor Society is a national student support group providing professional school tours, educational programs, and lectures on health topics and on the professional school admissions process to students interested in health-related fields such as medicine, dentistry, optometry, and veterinary medicine. Active membership is awarded to students who have completed at least three semesters with a minimum scholastic GPA of 3.000. Associate membership is also available.
Accelerated Master's Degree in Biology
Qualified undergraduates may be admitted to an accelerated master's program and obtain both a BS and MS within five years. This program is open only to those students who wish to pursue the master's degree concentrations in microbiology or molecular biology. Students admitted to this program may take graduate courses after completion of 90 undergraduate credits, and up to six credits of graduate work may be used in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the undergraduate degree. If students earn at least a 3.0 in these classes, they are granted advanced standing in the master's program and must then complete an additional 24 credits to receive the master's degree. All other master's degree requirements must be met.
Students with an overall GPA of at least 3.000 may apply for provisional acceptance to the accelerated master's program after completion of BIOL 213, 303, 304, 305/306, 307, 311; CHEM 315 and 318; or after completion of 75 undergraduate credits including BIOL 494. Three letters of recommendation, including one from a prospective thesis or project advisor, are required.
After completion of 120 credits and completion of all requirements for the bachelor's degree, at which time students are awarded a bachelor's degree, accelerated master's students must submit scores on the Graduate Record General and Biology Subject Examinations in order to have the provisional qualifier removed. Ordinarily, students should receive a minimum combined score of 1100 on the verbal and quantitative portions of the general test and be at least in the 50th percentile on the subject examination.
Post-Baccalaureate Pre-Med Certificate
This program is designed to prepare for application to medical school those post-baccalaureate students whose degrees are not in the sciences. If such students begin the prescribed program in a summer session, they will be ready to take the MCAT examination the following August after earning between 24 and 37 undergraduate hours in math and science depending on their prior preparation.
Students must have a bachelor's degree in a non-science program. If admitted, they will be advised through the Medical Sciences Advisory Committee. Application can be made to Graduate Admissions, College of Arts and Sciences, 4400 University Drive, MS 3A3, Fairfax, VA 22030. Completion of the certificate does not guarantee admission to any medical program.
This program is not open to pre-baccalaureate students or those who have an extensive background in science, but it is assumed that students are likely to have had a year of biology and one semester of mathematics. Medical schools do require a year of math, so the one semester shown above may not be sufficient. Because student experience is varied, for students with course work within the past five years, the program director may waive requirements as shown below or suggest substitutions. In every case, the number of credits necessary to earn the certificate will be at least 24.
Students will normally take the MCAT examination in their second summer and commercial exam prep courses are available on campus if a student desires more extensive preparation. Students who find this schedule too accelerated for their needs may wish to spread the course work over an additional academic year. Admission to medical school, if granted, will normally occur in the fall one year after application. During that intervening year, students are encouraged to seek experience through employment or volunteer work in the bio-medical area and are advised by many medical schools to take biochemistry (Biology 583, 4 credits).
Justification: Many people make the decision to enter medical training after their initial college education is complete. Because the science requirements for medical school are extensive, these students must return to college for additional undergraduate education in the sciences. The proposed certificate will guide their preparation and ensure that they complete their program efficiently. Students who successfully complete the program will receive a Post-Baccalaureate Pre-Medical Certificate.
The Master of Science in Biology provides advanced training for college graduates or professionals seeking careers in the biotechnology industry or biodefense, as well as more traditional careers in biomedical research, teaching, ecology, evolutionary biology, animal biology, and others. Master's-level concentrations are available in molecular biology, microbiology, bioinformatics and computational biology (BCB), and systematics and evolutionary biology. Alternatively, students may choose the program in biological sciences, which allows the flexibility to specialize in additional areas.
Applicants must have a bachelor's degree in biology or its equivalent, except for students who choose the BCB concentration. Students who choose the BCB concentration must have an undergraduate degree in any natural science, mathematics, engineering, or computer science. It is preferred that students who choose the BCB concentration have some undergraduate background in cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, and/or biochemistry (two to four upper division courses); plus some undergraduate background in computer science (two to four courses that include substantial programming projects). Students without this background may be asked to remedy their deficiencies. A GPA of 3.000 in biology or in the last 60 credits of undergraduate study is required. Students must also submit three letters of recommendation and scores on the GRE. Successful applicants usually score at least 1100 on the verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE (1200 for the BCB). Applicants to all concentrations except BCB must submit scores on the GRE subject examination in either biology or biochemistry. Applicants to the BCB concentration must submit a GRE subject score in an area of their choosing (i.e., mathematics, computer science, physics, biology, biochemistry, etc.). Admission is contingent on acceptance by a faculty research advisor.
An advisory committee and the student work together to develop a program of study that best fits the student's background and interests. At least one member of the committee must be a member of the Molecular and Microbiology Department. The student must submit a program of study to the program director for approval within the first 12 credits of graduate work and must complete at least 30 graduate credits.
Students have the option to write a thesis (3 to 6 credits of BIOL 799) or a project (1 to 3 credits of BIOL 798). According to George Mason graduate policies, "the same quality of work is expected of students regardless of their chosen option," that is, the MS thesis option or the MS project option. In general, the MS thesis is most appropriate for students planning or considering a research career. The MS project is most appropriate for students who have scheduling commitments, such as a full-time job, which may preclude performing a complete series of laboratory experiments. The requirements differ primarily at the conclusion of the project, when students pursuing the project option must successfully complete written and oral comprehensive examinations. Students pursuing the thesis option must write a formal thesis that meets the requirements of the Graduate School, as well as defending their thesis and presenting their results in a public seminar.
Program in Biological Sciences
The program in biological sciences is for students who wish to specialize in an area not covered by the concentrations described below.
Concentration in Microbiology
Concentration in Molecular Biology
Concentration in Systematics and Evolutionary Biology
Concentration in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
Molecular Techniques Requirement
Students may satisfy the molecular techniques requirement with BIOL 668 or BIOS 740. Special topics courses, such as BIOL 575 or BIOL 691, may count for this requirement, but only in semesters in which they are taught in a laboratory workshop format.
Recommended Electives for Students in Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology
This list is provided as a suggestion only, and is not intended to be complete. Note that two courses covering substantially similar topics may not both be counted in the student's course plan. Students should consult their faculty research advisor when preparing a course plan.
The main objective of the MS in Biodefense program is to train students for employment in the area of biodefense within academia, industry, and government. The programs provide students with a background in the foundations of science and technology of biodefense, threat analysis of biological weapons, and the specialized areas of medical defense, including engineering defense, non-proliferation in biodefense, and counter-terrorism and law enforcement of biodefense.
Preparation for the MS in Biodefense should include a BA, BS, MA, MS, MD, or JD. Due to the breadth of the topic, students with a background in international affairs, political science, law, public policy, and conflict resolution will be eligible for the program in addition to those with a background in the sciences. Students lacking a background in the sciences will be considered for admission, but may be required to satisfy prerequisite courses prior to the required graduate courses. The program will require a minimum 3.000 cumulative undergraduate GPA, but exceptions will be considered on an individual basis. Applicants who meet the minimum criteria will be considered for admittance to the program on the basis of experience, letters of recommendation, and other relevant credentials. Admissions are determined by the available funding for the program, with individual candidates selected by an admission committee. No specific set of qualifications guarantees admission to the program.
Each applicant must provide the following materials.
The MS in Biodefense degree requires completion of 30 credits. All students in the degree program are required to take the following core courses: BIOD 604, 605, 606, and 607.
All students must take two seminar courses (BIOD 702 and 703), and do a thesis (3 to 6 credits of BIOL 799) or project (1 to 3 credits of BIOL 798). The difference between the two options is the depth and sophistication of the work. Whereas a thesis normally involves original research and independent acquisition and interpretation of data, a project may be employment-related research, a comprehensive report resulting from an internship, or a publication-quality scientific paper. At the conclusion of the program, students pursuing the project option must successfully complete written and oral comprehensive examinations. Students pursuing the thesis option must defend their thesis and present their results in a public seminar.
The MS in Biodefense has four concentrations: 1) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis and Medical Biodefense; 2) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis, and Engineering Defense and Countermeasures; 3) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis and Non-proliferation; and 4) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis, and Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement.
Students must take required and elective credits to fulfill the 30 credit hour requirement.
Required courses for each concentration in the biodefense program are as follows:
The main objective of the PhD in Biodefense is to train students for employment in the area of biodefense in academia, industry, and government. The program integrates knowledge of potential pathogenic agents used in biological warfare with medical defense to such agents. Other areas of biodefense, including non-proliferation, counter-terrorism and law enforcement, and engineering defense, are integral parts of the program.
Preparation for the PhD in Biodefense program should include a BA, BS, MA, MS, MD, or JD. Due to the breadth of the topic, students with a background in international affairs, political science, law, public policy, and conflict resolution will be eligible for the program in addition to those with a background in the sciences. Students lacking a background in the sciences will be considered for admission, but may be required to satisfy prerequisite courses prior to the required graduate courses. The program normally requires a minimum 3.000 cumulative undergraduate GPA, but exceptions will be considered on an individual basis. Applicants who meet the minimum criteria will be considered for admittance to the program on the basis of experience, letters of recommendation, and other relevant credentials. For a given year, actual admissions will be determined by the available funding for the program, with individual candidates selected by an admission committee. No specific set of qualifications guarantees admission to the program.
Each applicant must provide the following materials.
The PhD program has a set of biodefense core courses and four areas of concentration: 1) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis and Medical Defense; 2) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis, and Engineering Defense and Countermeasure; 3) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis and Non-Proliferation; and 4) Biological Weapons Threat Analysis, and Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement. All students are required to choose a concentration, take 72 credit hours of course work, and conduct dissertation research in the chosen concentration for successfully completing the program requirements. For students entering the doctoral program with a MS or other graduate work, the number of total credits required may be reduced by a maximum of 30 credits, depending on the field of the MS or other graduate work. All students are required to complete the minimum requirements: core requirements or the equivalent; requirements of one concentration; 2 credits of seminar; and a dissertation.
All students are required to take the following core courses: BIOD 604, 605, 606, and 607. All students must take BIOD 702 and 703 at least one time.
Students may use dissertation credits for carrying out original and independent research projects in biodefense. A student may take up to 24 graduate credits under BIOD 998 and 999 for dissertation work. Students must present dissertation research results to their graduate committee and in a seminar. Successful completion of dissertation is contingent upon approval by majority of their graduate committee. The dissertation needs to be written in the format specified by College of Arts and Sciences Dean's office.
Required courses for each concentration in the biodefense program are as follows:
1. Biological Weapons Threat Analysis and Medical Defense: At least 9 hours of the following courses must be taken to fulfill the concentration requirements: CHEM 663, 664; BIOL 553, 669; BIOD 704, 708, 710, 711, 712.
2. Biological Weapons Threat Analysis, and Engineering Defense and Countermeasure: At least 9 hours of the following must be taken: BIOD 705, 707, 724, and 761.
3. Biological Weapons Threat Analysis and Non-Proliferation: At least 9 hours of the following courses must be taken: BIOD 706, 709, 723, and 763.
4. Biological Weapons Threat Analysis, and Counter-Terrorism and Law Enforcement: At least 9 hours of the following courses must be taken: BIOD 721, 722, 723, 724.
Certificates in Microbial Biodefense and Biological Threat and Defense
The certificates in microbial biodefense and in biological threat and defense are designed for the college graduate employed in the biodefense industry, the pharmaceutical industry, national defense, and national security. The programs are designed for the new college graduate as well as the person with work experience in biodefense. The certificate in microbial biodefense is geared toward the student with a background in the sciences. The courses for this certificate have been selected to provide the student with a sound knowledge of agents of biological warfare, as well as areas such as epidemiology, immunology, toxicology, and approaches to biological warfare medical treatment and response. The certificate in biological threat and defense is planned for the person with an interest in threat analysis and defense to such threats. This program stresses the history of biological agent usage, nonproliferation, and such topics as coordinated response to bioterrorist attacks, incident response, and counter terrorism and civil rights. Students in the biological threat and defense certificate program without a science background are strongly encouraged to take a course in microbiology such as BIOL 246 or 305, with BIOL 306.
Each applicant must provide the following materials:
1. Completed application form
2. All undergraduate and graduate transcripts
3. Three letters of recommendation from faculty members or individuals who have firsthand knowledge of the applicant's academic or professional capabilities
4. A statement of purpose consistent with research interests or professional goals
5. Departmental form
7. Graduate Record Examination (GRE) taken within five years prior to application submission
8. Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) as per George Mason University policies
An interview may be required.
Certificate in Microbial Biodefense
Students must complete at least 15 credits as follows:
Certificate in Biological Threat and Defense
Students must complete at least 15 credits as follows:
The Biosciences Doctoral Program is a research-oriented field of study that prepares students for significant contributions in an academic or industrial setting. Areas of emphasis include microarray analysis of gene expression, the sequencing and analysis of genes, gene family evolution, mechanisms of toxicology and mutagenesis, and biotechnological applications.
The academic component is a three-tiered structure. The first provides a set of four core courses designed to advance research skills across all disciplines. This is followed by four-five core courses and elective courses. The first two levels are designed to be completed in approximately two years, including the comprehensive exam. Upon completion of these requirements and the comprehensive exam, the student advances to candidacy status. The third level focuses on research and culminates in a dissertation.
In addition to materials required of all applicants for graduate study, the following is also required.
Applications should be submitted by February 1 for fall admission. Under unusual circumstances, applications may be considered for spring admission if they are received by October 1. Applications will be considered until positions are filled. Students are encouraged to meet application deadlines to be considered for scholarships and stipends. Applications will be considered until positions are filled.
Strong candidates who lack several prerequisites to any concentration may be admitted to provisional status. Removal from provisional status, and continuation in the program, is contingent upon earning a GPA of 3.25 in the program's fundamental courses, plus completion of missing prerequisites.
Students who have not taken a course in basic biochemistry will be required to complete one prior to BIOS 701.
Candidates for the PhD in biosciences must complete a minimum of 72 graduate credits.
Upon admission to the program, each student is assigned an advisor from the bioscience faculty. The advisor may be changed by mutual consent of student and advisor or by petition to the program director and the dean. With the advisor, students adopt an individual program that focuses on a specific area of research.
By the end of the fourth semester of coursework, the student assembles a dissertation committee of four graduate faculty members with representation from at least two academic departments. The committee and the concentration director approve the program of study.
Upon near completion of course requirements, students take a qualifying examination with a written and an oral component. At the discretion of the committee, the written qualifying examination may be retaken once if the student's performance was deemed below satisfaction. Upon successful completion of the qualifying examination and all other coursework, students will be recommended for advancement to candidacy by the committee and concentration coordinator.
After advancement to candidacy, students are eligible to enroll in dissertation (998, 999). Students must present their dissertation results to their graduate committee and in a seminar and defend the dissertation publicly.
For students entering the doctoral program with a master's of science degree, the number of credits required may be reduced by a maximum of 30 with the approval of the advisor and the concentration director. Graduate credits taken previously and not used toward another degree may be transferred, subject to the approval of the advisor, concentration director, and the dean.
Concentration in Functional Genomics and Biotechnology
This concentration prepares students for significant contributions in an academic or industrial career. Areas of emphasis include microarray analysis, cancer genomics, molecular studies of disease mechanisms, and biotechnology.
All students must take the following 15 graduate credits as their concentration courses:
1. 15 credits in BIOS 740, 741, 742, 743, and 744
Concentration in Neuroscience
This concentration prepares students for significant contributions in an academic or research setting. Major emphases on modeling, functioning of small neuronal ensembles, neurochemistry, addiction, and behavioral neuroscience.
1. 12 credits in BIOS 721, 722 (PSYC 702), 723, 724 (PSYC 531)