University Catalog 2005-2006

Philosophy (PHIL)

Philosophy and Religious Studies

100 Introduction to Philosophy (3:3:0) Introduction to the nature of philosophical reasoning and some of the main problems of philosophy.

111 Individual and Society (3:3:0) Examines philosophical issues revolving around the relationship between the individual and society, drawing from Plato, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Marx. Issues include the concept of individual rights, the legitimacy of political authority, and the competing demands of individual liberty, equality, and the common good.

112 Ethics and the Cybersociety (1:1:0) Examination of a variety of ethical issues associated with new developments in information technology, including privacy rights, intellectual property rights, and the effect of information technology on society.

151 Introduction to Ethics (3:3:0) Considers some perennial issues in ethical theory.

155 Issues in Environmental Ethics (3:3:0) Philosophical examination of a variety of issues in environmental ethics, such as the moral status of animals, the moral significance of nature, our duties to protect wilderness areas, the moral status of economic reasoning, and morally acceptable population policies.

156 What Is Art? (3:3:0) Introduction to philosophical reflection on the arts by looking at the critical issues in the history of aesthetics. Applies considerations to specific works and exploring these works in terms of their historical contexts and influences. Concentrates on one form of art or one period and always emphasizes questions of critical evaluation and art historical analysis.

173 Logic and Critical Thinking (3:3:0) Basic concepts and techniques of deduction, emphasizing the modern treatment of such topics as quantification and rules of inference, with study of the classical treatment. Basic principles of induction, informal fallacies, and uses of logic in everyday life.

180 Logic and Law (3:3:0) What are the standards of reasoning that guide decision-making in the law? This question draws attention to the criteria for a sound argument, a topic that is central to logic. In this course, students examine how lawyers rely on such criteria to persuade jurors of the merits of their case. Standards of reasoning associated with work of jurors also examined.

253 Philosophy and Literature (3:3:0) Examines differences and relations between literary and philosophical texts. Examines texts from a given period in the history of literature and philosophy. Topics include the presence of common issues in literary and philosophical writings, the influence of philosophical ideas on the production of literary texts and literary theory, and the development in literary texts of issues that are possible objects of philosophical inquiry.

254 Contemporary Ethical Problems (3:3:0) Topics include homosexuality, abortion, drugs, civil disobedience, capital punishment, and rights of individual versus the rights of society.

301 History of Western Philosophy: Ancient (3:3:0) Classical Greek philosophy, including pre-Socrates, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

302 History of Western Philosophy: Medieval (3:3:0) Figures and problems of medieval philosophy. Study of leading thinkers from the 5th to the 15th centuries.

303 History of Western Philosophy: Modern (3:3:0) Figures and problems of modern philosophy. Study of philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, and Hegel.

305 Business Ethics (3:3:0) Examines some moral problems that arise with regard to the responsibilities of various segments of the business community, including employers, management, stockholders, to one another, to the consumer, and to society at large.

306 Business Ethics Internship (1:0:0) Working independently or in teams, students participate in evaluation of organizations nominated for National Capitol Business Ethics Award. With no scheduled class meetings but working with the professor, students learn ethical standards and practices for business and how ethics can be incorporated into organizational culture. They gain understanding of ethics codes, leadership skills that develop ethical behavior, and management techniques that support an ethical environment in business.

309 Medicine and Human Values (3:3:0) Prerequisite: completion or concurrent enrollment in all other general education course. Examination of some of the major moral issues involved in practice and research in medicine and health care. Topics to be chosen from medical experimentation, definition of death, physician assisted dying, genetics and human reproduction, distribution of scarce resources, fertility and organ transplants.

311 Philosophy of Law (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits of philosophy orpermission of instructor. Investigation of theories of natural law, legal positivism, and legal realism as they pertain to some of the centralphilosophical questions about law.

312 Philosophy of Technology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits ofphilosophy or permission of instructor. Philosophical examination of modern technology in its broadest human context. Several alternative philosophies of technology are considered. Examines the relationships between technology and religion, economics, and politics. Ethical issues raised by the use oftechnology are also examined. Typically, the course focuses on the ethical issues raised by the use of one kind of technology.

313 Philosophy of Religion (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits ofphilosophy or permission of instructor. Study of classical appeals to philosophy in support of belief in godÕs existence (Philo, Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas, Descartes); the fideism of Hume and the metaphysical agnosticism of Kant; the concept of religious experience in the philosophies of Hegel, Schleiermacher, and Kierkegaard; and the problem of religious language in contemporary empirical philosophy.

323 Classical Western Political Theory (3:3:0) Exploration through lecture and discussion of developments in the Western tradition of political thought from the time of the Greek city-state to late medieval Christendom, focusing on such topics as the nature and purpose of politics, the relationship between the individual and the state, the political significance of religion and tradition, and the concept of natural law.

324 Modern Western Political Theory (3:3:0) Exploration through lecture and discussion of developments in the Western tradition of political thought from the Renaissance to the middle of the 19th century, focusing on such topics as the rise of individualism in political theory, early developments in social contact theory, theories of radical popular sovereignty, and early criticisms of liberal theory.

325 Karl MarxÕs Social and Political Thought (3:3:0) Prerequisite:3credits of philosophy or permission of instructor. Study and evaluation of MarxÕs social and political ideas based on writings selected from several phases of his career. Examination of relation of MarxÕs thought to post-Marxian socialist theory and practice.

326 Justice, Law, and the Modern State (3:3:0) Investigation into several modern theories of justice through a critical examination of important recent texts. Theories used to critically evaluate central structures of the American system of government and the process of legislation.

327 Contemporary Western Political Theory (3:3:0) Exploration through lecture and discussion of recent developments in the Western tradition of political thought from the middle of the 19th century to today. Different sections of this course will focus on one or another of the various political theories that have been influential during this period, such as liberal, libertarian, conservative, com-munitarian, Marxist, feminist, and postmodern thought. This course can be retaken for credit when the subject matter is different.

332 Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy (3:3:0) Prerequisites: 3credits of logic and PHIL 303 or permission of instructor. Examination of the attempts of 20th-century philosophers to solve philosophical problemsby an analysis of language. Figures and movements covered include Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, logical positivism, and ordinary language philosophy.

335 Nineteenth-Century Philosophy (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits ofphilosophy or permission of instructor. Development of German Romanticism and Idealism during a brilliant period in the history of the West rivaled only by ancient Greece. Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, andNietzsche mount a revolt against the rationalism and scientism of the modern world.

336 Contemporary Continental Thought: Existentialism (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits of philosophy or permission of instructor. Examination of existential philosophy from its 19th-century origins to its 20th-century expressions. Philosophers studied include Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Sartre, De Beauvoir, and Buber.

337 Twentieth-Century Continental Thought: Phenomenology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits of philosophy or permission of instructor. Examines phenomenological way of doing philosophy, its findings in regard to the Òlife-world,Ó questions of Òfirst philosophy,Ó and the subject matter of the social sciences, as well as critical difficulties in its development. Texts by Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, Schutz, and Derrida.

338 Woman: The Philosophical Questions (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 creditsof philosophy or permission of instructor. Exploration of the meaning and politics of the question of woman that puts the idea of woman into question. Recognizing the historical context of this issue, the ways in which the structures of patriarchy situate woman as the other and determine the meanings of sexuality, subjectivity, the body, and language are examined. One overriding theme is relationship between the ÒwomanÓ question and other central issues of contemporary philosophy.

340 Hermeneutic Philosophy (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits ofphilosophy or permission of instructor. Study of the development of hermeneutic philosophy in works by Heidegger, Gademer, and Ricoeur, as an effort toward coming to terms with the historicity of human experience. Implications for interpretive understanding of artworks, institutions, events, texts, and the human condition.

351 Philosophy Business Ethics Internship (3:3:3) This internship will develop self-directed learning skills in which the student will gain a better understanding and appreciation of both ethics and its application in the business world. Students will learn appropriate ethical standards for business; develop an appreciation of the need for an ethical culture; and experience the day-to-day activities of a business organization where they learn how ethics is incorporated into the culture. Students will gain understanding of ethics codes, leadership skills that rely on ethics, and management techniques that encourage and support an ethical environment in business.

355 Contemporary Ethical Theory (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PHIL 151 orpermission of instructor. Major trends and issues in recent moral philosophy.

356 Philosophy of Art (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits of philosophy orpermission of instructor. Basic problems that arise from an inquiry into meaning and value of art and our response to art.

357/SOCI 599 Philosophy of the Social Sciences (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3credits of philosophy or permission of instructor. Philosophical issues relating to competing methodologies for the social sciences. Analysis and critique of mainstream positivism and behaviorism; paradigm theory and scientific revolutions; interpretive understanding and hermeneutical science; phenomenology and the social construction of reality; ethnomethodology and situational meaning; analytic philosophy and action theory; the ÒideaÓ of a social science; sociology of knowledge and theory of ideology; and Western Marxism and critical theory.

371 Philosophy of Natural Sciences (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits ofphilosophy or permission of instructor. One semester of logic recommended. Study of aims and methodology of science. Among the questions of concern are, What constitutes a good scientific explanation? What grounds are used for comparing rival theories? Is there a special method of scientific discovery?

372 Philosophical Methods (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits ofphilosophy or permission of instructor. Study of the relationship between a philosopherÕs method, doctrine, and concept of truth. Philosophers studied vary but include representatives from among the empirical, analytical, phenomenological, hermeneutical, and structuralist movements.

373 Theory of Knowledge (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits of philosophyor permission of instructor. Discussion of basic problems concerning the nature of knowledge, with study of the relation of knowledge to perception, belief, and language.

374 Philosophy of Mind (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits of philosophyor permission of instructor. Investigation of such theories as dualism, behaviorism, and materialism as they pertain to some of the central philosophical questions about mind.

375 Metaphysics (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits of philosophy orpermission of instructor. Study of basic problems concerning being in general and foundations of individual being; traditional treatments of such problems and criticism of possibility of such knowledge. Selected readings from Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Spinoza, Leibniz, Kant, Bradley, Heidegger, and others.

376 Symbolic Logic (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PHIL 173 or MATH 110 orpermission of instructor. Study of predicate calculi by means of a step-by-step construction of artificial languages. Topics include procedures for constructing a calculus, proof techniques, significant properties of predicate calculi, and procedures for recognizing phrases.

377 Darwin: Biology and Beyond (3:3:0) Prerequisites: completion or concurrent enrollment in all other required general education courses. Introduction to and philosophical examination of the theory of evolution in its historical perspective. Examines DarwinÕs theory of evolution as a scientific theory, connect it to its context in the history of science, and survey its wider cultural impact. In particular, examine implications of the theory of evolution for religion and morality.

378 Reason, Science and Faith in the Modern Age (3:3:0) Prerequisite: completion or concurrent enrollment in all other required general education courses or permission of the instructor. Philosophical-historical examination of the rise of sciences in the modern age (1500-present) and the impact this has had on religion, drawing from such thinkers as Luther, Bacon, Galileo, Newton, Pascal, Hume, Darwin, Kierkegaard, and James.

391, 392 Special Topics in Philosophy (3:3:0), (3:3:0) Examination of topics of current interest, such as death and dying, rights of children, or philosophical controversies in modern physics.

421 Seminar (3:3:0)Limited to philosophy majors with 9 credits ofphilosophy, but others may be admitted if the topic is sufficiently closeto their fields of study. Topics vary.

425, 426 Independent Study (3:0:0), (3:0:0) Prerequisites: philosophymajors with 60 credits and 15 credits of philosophy and permission ofdepartment.

470 Seminar: Philosophical Examination of Social Issues and the Law (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 3 credits in philosophy or permission ofinstructor. Philosophical study of social issues that are subject to legislation and judicial review. Analysis of the purpose and function of law in society lays the groundwork for reflection on specific issues such as abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, divorce, child care, and health care.

510 Seminar in Ethics of Health Care (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 90 credits,graduate standing, or permission of instructor. Examination of moral dilemmas within the health care profession on ethical theories and principles. Special emphasis on patientsÕ rights, social justice of health care, and evolving health care technologies.

512 Issues in Philosophy and Literature (3:3:0) Prerequisites: 90 credits,6 credits of 300-level English, and 6 credits of 300-level philosophy, orpermission of instructor. Possible topics include structuralism, technology, form and matter, conceptions of the future. Course is cross-listed and team taught.

520 Current Issues in Philosophy of Science (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduatestanding or permission of instructor. Advanced exploration of the current issues addressing the structure of scientific knowledge. The fundamental question is, What are the rational standards for acquiring knowledge of the physical world? This question is explored from rival philosophical perspectives: the logical-empiricist perspective of the Received View, represented by R. Carnap and C. Hempel; the problem-solving perspective of the historicists T. Kuhn and L. Laudan; and the rationalism of W. Newton-Smith; and the antirealism of V. van Fraassen.

531 Freud and Philosophy (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of philosophy,course in personality theory, or permission of instructor. Explores philosophical aspects of FreudÕs thought, focusing on FreudÕs philosophy of human nature and culture, and influence on contemporary thought.

555 Environmental Ethics (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing, or permission of instructor. Examination of ethical principles affecting environmental issues with special emphasis on the problems encountered by environmental biologists.

560 Philosophical Foundations of Science (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduatestanding or permission of instructor. Focuses on metaphysical questions concerning the nature of physical reality, as presented within major scientific theories of the modern era. Questions are explored within the scientific/metaphysical principles of Kepler, Galileo, Boyle, Newton, Kant, Faraday, Einstein, and Bohr.

573 Current Issues in Theory of Knowledge (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing. Advanced exploration of conditions and limits of knowledge, from the perspective of contemporary philosophy. Is there any infallible, or fallible but at least reasonable, foundation for achieving an understanding of the world and of our minds? This question is examined from the perspective of sense datum theory, coherentism, and various naturalizedepistemologies. The nature of a priori knowledge (from mathematics and logic) is also examined.

574 Philosophical Issues in Cognitive Science (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 90credits or graduate standing plus 12 credits in philosophy and any of thedisciplines relative to cognitive science (such as psychology or computerscience) required for undergraduates and recommended for graduates, orpermission of instructor. Careful examination of some philosophical issue or issues relevant to contemporary studies of the mind. Typical issues examined include the mind-body problem, philosophical and psychological implications of work in artificial intelligence, and philosophical issues in psycholinguistics.

591 Special Topics in Philosophy (3:3:0) Examination of specific topics in philosophy that are both of central interest in that field and of interdisciplinary interest. Topics are selected with special reference to the areas of technology, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, ethics, and social and political philosophy.

602 Plato: Selected Dialogues (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. A study of the central issues in the philosophy of Plato through a close reading of selected dialogues. Issues investigated will include the questions of the possibility of knowledge, the nature of being, and of the good.

604 Augustine and Aquinas (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. Critical examination of philosophies of Augustine and Aquinas with special attention to the mode of argument of each.

605 Mind-Body Problem in Early Modern Philosophy (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. An examination of the views of major early modern philosophers on issues such as mind and body interaction, personal identity, and freedom of the will, as well as of interpretations of these philosophers by historians of philosophy.

608 HegelÕs Phenomenology of the Spirit (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. A study of the philosophy of Hegel through a reading of the text that presents an introduction to his system. Special attention is paid to HegelÕs background in the work of Kant and the German Idealists.

611 Philosophy of Law (3:3:0) Prerequisite: Graduate standing orpermission of instructor. Examination of the major jurisprudential theories that underpin law in Western society. After examining the theories, students apply them to contemporary social and political problems.

615 Postmodernist Thought (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing orpermission of instructor. In recent decades, the term Òpostmodern,Ó first used by art critics in the late 19th century, has been taken up by prominent contributors to the arts, social thinkers, and philosophers,to describe developments as well as thecurrent period. This course examines three thematic concerns found in work that is identified with postmodern issues: what modernity defines itself incontrast to or against, the status of Òman,Ó and status of Òsubjectivity.Ó

616 Phenomenology (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. This major approach in philosophy is studied in regard to its basic features, the tasks to which it has been set by major contributors, certain findings of phenomenology in practice, as well as crucial problems that develop as phenomenology proceeds and how they are addressed by phenomenologists.

617 Movements and Issues in the History of Political Philosophy (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. Explores themes, movements, and periods in the history of political theory.

618 Contemporary French Feminism (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. This course examines the philosophical contexts of existential-phenomenological and psychoanalytic French Feminist. It explores the ways in which French feminist thought has influenced continental philosophical thinking and international feminist theory.

621 Philosophy of Science (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. An exploration of whether and how scientific advances can be achieved. Special attention is paid to relativism and rationalism debates and to the role of technology in science.

640 History of Ethical Theory (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. An examination of the history of Western ethical theory from ancient Greece to the present day, including virtue theory, consequentialism, deontological theory and contemporary feminism.

641 Ethics and the Professions (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing or permission of instructor. A philosophical analysis of the concept of profession as a category of the world of work. Professional codes of ethics are examined to determine their effectiveness as guides for professional conduct.

642 Biomedical Ethics (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Explores the application of ethical theories and principles to issues in contemporary healthcare. Cases central to the development of the field will be examined.

643 Environmental Ethics (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. An examination of human interactions with the natural environment from an ethical perspective. Emphasis will be placed on the strengths and weaknesses of various ethical theories and the different conceptions of the proper relationship between humans and their environment.

644 Business and Organizational Ethics (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. An examination of organizational culture as necessary for ethical development and of the application of ethics in business and organizational settings.

645 Administration of Justice Ethics (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. An in-depth analysis of ethical issues in the administration of justices with special emphasis placed on foundational issues such as freedom and justice in a democracy.

656 Happiness and the Quality of Life (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduatestanding or permission of instructor. Examination of the role that concepts of happiness and the good life have played in ethical theory. Focuses on the development of consequentialist ethical theories from AristotleÕs eudaimonic theory to contemporary versions of utilitarian theory. Examines the theories of the self and personal identity implied by these ethical theories. Throughout the semester, these theories are used to critically assess modern social structures.

658 Feminist Theory (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permissionof instructor. Analysis of the critique of patriarchy offered by contemporary continental feminist philosophers. Examines contemporary moral, political, and epistemological issues in feminist theory.

681 Philosophical Figures (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing. Examination of a major philosophical author of crucial philosophical texts and their influence on philosophical thought. May be repeated for maximum6 credits.

691 Special Topics in Philosophy (1-6:1-6:0) Prerequisite: graduatestanding or permission of instructor. Topics vary.

693 Directed Readings in Philosophy (3:0:0) Directed readings and research on a specific topic in philosophy chosen by student and instructor. May be repeated for maximum 6 credits.

720 Nietzsche and his Readers (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing. Reading of the major texts of Nietzsche and of some of his most influential interpreters and critics.

733 Current Issues in Cognitive Science (3:3:0) Prerequisites: admission to masterÕs program in philosophy or permission of instructor. An examination of some current areas of investigation in cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, such as the nature of consciousness, the representational theory of mind and connectionist theories of mind.