Public Administration (PUAD)
Public and International Affairs
502 Administration in Public and Nonprofit Organizations (3:3:0) Graduate introduction to the field of public administration. Focuses on structure, functions, and processes of the executive branch agencies of national, state, and local governments. Emphasis on nonprofit organizations as co-actors with government in the policy-making/policy implementation nexus.
504 Managing in the International Arena: Theory and Practice (3:3:0) Theoretical and empirical examination of the international system that both affects and is affected by the decisions, behaviors, and subsystems of state and nonstate (organizational) actors.
505 Introduction to Management of Nonprofits (1-3:3:0) Examination of nonprofit organizations and their role in contemporary society. The aspects of nonprofits that make them unique are explored to include voluntary governance, tax-exempt status, nonprofit corporation law, accounting practices, fund raising, finance, and management of volunteers. Emphasis is on the board/executive relationship and the value of establishing and maintaining a nonprofit organizationÕs reputation.
509 Justice Organizations and Processes (3:3:0) Examination of the structures, practices, and performance of organizations involved in the administration of justice (law enforcement, courts and legal agencies, corrections, regulatory and related agencies, private organizations) Explores the applicability of various theoretical perspectives on organizational processes and considers the extent to which processes operate as a system. Focus is on comparing formal goals and system expectations to actual practice.
510 Policing in a Democratic Society (3:3:0) Fundamental issues in policing a democratic society. Topics include the police mission; impact of the police subculture; defining, recognizing, and measuring good police work; moral hazards of policing (corruption, brutality, and deception); the promotion of integrity, discretion, and control; impact of police practices on crime and disorder; securing the support of the public; and the legitimacy of police, community policing, and other reforms.
611 Problem Solving and Data Analysis I (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate statistics course and passing grade on screening exam. Techniques, skills available to and used by public managers to solve policy-related problems or analyze policy-related data. Focuses on problem definition, research design, and problem solving under conditions of uncertainty in public sector.
612 Problem Solving and Data Analysis II (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 611. Techniques and skills available to and used by public managers to solve policy-related problems or analyze policy-related data. Focus is on data gathering and analysis, use of computers, systems theory and analysis, and operations research.
615 Administrative Law (3:3:0) Law as a guiding and controlling force in public-sector operations. Covers application of legal processes to administrative practices and situations, and administrative determination of private rights and obligations.
620 Organization Theory and Management Behavior (3:3:0) Consideration of behavior within the context of public organization and the consequent changes required in management. Focus on such issues as perception, attitude formation, motivation, leadership, systems theory, communication and information flow, conflict theory, and decision theory.
621 Principles and Practices in Government Organization and Management (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 620. Major management theories applicable to the American federal system. Emphasis is on organization, structure, and operations. The relationship of theories to management practices in contemporary American administration is explored.
622 Program Planning and Implementation (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 620. Practical exploration of implementing public law in the American federal system. Construction of organizational apparatus, development of operational plans, and systems of control and evaluation necessary to implement government programs are studied. Emphasis is on coordinating tasks and resources required for effective program implementation.
625 Higher Education Law (3:3:0) Analysis of the many legal issues confronting higher education: governance, faculty matters and student issues. Examples include due process, freedom of speech, and privacy. Review all the key constituents in higher education—student, faculty, administrators, board of trustees, and parents—and how their roles are changing.
634 Management of International Security (3:3:0) Examination of theory and practice of managing international security. Emphasis is on interplay of organizational structure and bureaucratic dynamics in the international context. Theory and practice of crisis management and coordination and comparison of security methods and techniques are presented.
636 The NGO: Managing the International Nonprofit Organization (1-3:3:0) Unique aspects of nonprofit organizations operating in international environments, particularly in relief and development work. Relationship between the NGO and U.S. and foreign governments is examined. International philanthropy, cross-cultural under-standing, and key managerial concerns such as communications, planning, human resource management, control, group process, and project evaluation are covered.
640 Public Policy Process (3:3:0) Processes of making public policy, including detection of public issues, consideration of alternatives, and adoption and implementation of solutions. Highlights major actors in policy process, and environment within which they work.
642 Environmental Policy (3:3:0) In-depth examination of environmental policymaking. Examines efforts in the U.S. from 1970 to the present to mitigate pollution of the nationÕs air, land, and water, and addresses issues of global concern, including biodiversity loss, ozone depletion, and climate change.
643 Public Policy Research (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 640. Examination of major concepts, designs, and methods used in applied policy research. The underlying logic of policy inquiry, and the use of quantitative and qualitative techniques, is explored. Includes case applications of each of the major styles of inquiry, and the steps in planning, administering, and reporting policy research.
644 Public Policy Models (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 640. Approaches to modeling policy problems. Includes an analysis and comparison of the dominant paradigms in the policy sciences. Assumptions and implications of different models and their utility for analysis, implementation, and evaluation are reviewed.
651 Virginia Politics, Policy, and Administration (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 502. Cultural, demographic, constitutional, and socioeconomic environment of public administration in Virginia. Covers governmental agencies, legislative functions, executive leadership, staff agencies, state-local relationships, intrastate regionalism, administrative customs peculiar to Virginia.
654 The Community, Marketing, and Public Relations (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 502 or 505. Focuses on marketing concepts and communications issues of a nonprofit organization as they apply to the identification of its market, its ability to formulate a public image and reputation, and its capability to raise money and retain membership or volunteers.
655 Philanthropy and Fund Raising (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 502 or 505. Examines the history of philanthropy and its relationship to the nonprofit, government, and commercial sectors in the United States. The principles of financial development are studied including governance, development of organizational capacity, and the identification of funding sources and donor motivations. Provides an understanding of the many fund-raising techniques that generate financial support for nonprofits and the context in which these methods may be used.
657 Association Management (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 502 or 505. The practical application of management theory within the context of professional and trade associations. The legal structures, tax-exempt status, and general organizational structure are covered. Topics include volunteer management, budgeting and accounting practices in associations, fund raising, media relations, media and event planning, and human resource management.
659 Nonprofit Law, Governance, and Ethics (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing. Overview of the nonprofit governance as well as basic contract, labor, and tax law issues within nonprofit corporation law. Relationship between the board and the executive is covered, and ethics topics typical to nonprofit organizations such as self-dealing, fiduciary responsibility, and human resource issues.
660 Public and Nonprofit Accounting and Finance (3:3:0) Study of fundamental normative debates in the public and nonprofit financial management arena with a focus on resulting implementation principles and techniques in governmental accounting, financial reporting, budget and revenue decisions, debt management, cash and investment management, pensions and employee benefits, and risk management.
661 Public Budgeting Systems (3:3:0) Survey focusing on policy and theoretical framework of revenue and expenditure choices at all levels of government. Topics include development, theories, structure of budgeting; political, economic, and managerial aspects of public budgeting; public policy implications; and budgetary reform movements and successes and failures.
664 Advanced Topics in Nonprofit and Public Financial Management (1-3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 660 or permission of instructor. Focus on advanced issues in fiscal management systems, with attention to the accounting and fiscal features of nonprofit and public systems. Students will compose and read financial statements and examine such issues as investment policies, endowment management, and enterprise income. Elements of financial management such as raising money, budgeting, and control are discussed, with attention to conflicts among charitable, competitive, and public regarding norms.
670 Human Resources Management in the Public Sector (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 502. Overview of the range and complexity of functions, responsibilities, and expectations of human resource staff and line managers within the public sector. Focus is on human resources management within the context of political, legal, and managerial systems. Human resource functions, such as hiring, performance, and development, are also presented.
671 Public Employee Labor Relations (3:3:0) Public employee labor relations, including unionization, representational elections, bilateral policy negotiations, administration of agreements, management rights, union and membership security, the strike issue and grievance procedures, impact on public administration, and assessment of future developments.
680 Managing Information Resources (3:3:0) Prerequisite: admission to MPA program or permission of instructor. Examination of how managerial and analytical functions in public organizations can be performed via end-user computer applications. Provides in-depth coverage of selected database and decision support packages, and gives attention to logic and integration of application software.
691 Justice Program Planning and Implementation (3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and 509. The development and construction of organizational systems to implement government policies and programs. Emphasis on dealing with real-world challenges, constraints, and opportunities to create feasible plans, performance-monitoring systems, and secure multiple agency coordination. Applications of planning and implementation principles to actual projects in justice agencies.
700 Ethics and Public Administration (3:3:0) Prerequisites: admission to MPA program and 18 credits. Topics of ethical dimensions including constitutionalism, democratic values and traditions, standards of conduct and ethics, and conflicting values of public officials and social equity of public programs.
701 Cross-Cultural and Ethical Dimensions of International Management (3:3:0) To be taken in the final two semesters of the MPA program. Examination of normative issues in management of programs in international context. Emphasis is on interplay of cultural, sociopolitical, legal, and ethical factors and on management and policy problems arising from conflicting goals, values, and inequities among nations and regions.
720 Performance Measurement (3:3:0) Methods used by managers to systematically assess performance. Includes practical tools such as focus groups, survey research, cost/benefit analysis, benchmarking, and comparison methods for revealing outcomes and impacts. Prepares managers to use information more effectively in developing programs and services and formulating policy, and covers reporting techniques to communicate performance results.
727 Seminar in Risk Assessment and Decision Making (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 12 graduate credits. Examination of decision making under risk and uncertainty. Readings introduce the major intellectual perspectives on the topic and are drawn from a variety of disciplines, including biology, economics, law, and psychology. Emphasis is on making actual decisions under uncertainty.
729 Issues in Public Management (1-3:1-3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and 9 graduate credits. May be repeated with different topic. Current issues in management of public organizations in contemporary American government. Practical applications of theories and analysis to managerial problems are included. Competence in improving management in selected government settings is emphasized.
730 Professional Development Workshop (1-3:1-3:0) Exploration of external and internal factors that are reshaping public and nonprofit organizations. Investigation of processes and techniques that managers and staff can use to respond to rapid environmental change. Emphasis is placed on case studies and the application of techniques and processes.
732 Managing Technology Transfer (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 12 graduate credits. Examination of how governments, businesses, and international organizations manage cooperation and competition in the transfer of technology. Case studies on East-West, West-West, and North-South relations are included.
738 Issues in International Security (1-3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 504 and 9 graduate credits. May be repeated with different topic. Examination of issues of topical interest in the general area of international security. Possible topics include nuclear strategy, disarmament, American defense policy, and international terrorism.
739 Issues in International Management (1-3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and 9 graduate credits. Examination of significant current issues in public international management. Emphasis is on practical applications of theories and analysis of problems in the public international management arena. Competence in improving management practices in international management settings.
741 Policy Analysis (3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502, 611, 612, and 640. Introduction of concepts and techniques for formal policy analysis, development of skills in applying policy analysis techniques through case studies, and exploration of the legitimacy and utility of policy analysis.
742 Program Evaluation (3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and 611. Practical exploration of assessment techniques used in studying the results of public programs and policies, including evaluation of implementation strategies and impacts. Draws on multiple approaches such as cost analysis, field research, experiments, productivity analysis, surveys and questionnaires, and qualitative studies.
749 Issues in Public Policy (1-3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and 9 graduate credits. Examination of significant current issues in public policy in contemporary American government. Emphasis is on practical applications of theories and analysis to policy problems. Competence in improving policy analysis in selected government settings is also emphasized.
750 Federalism and Changing Patterns of Governance (3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and 9 graduate credits. Examination of broad trends in governance, including both the theory and practice of various governance choices. Choices include privatization, decentralization of governmental activity, grants-in-aid and growth of mandates, changing role of state and local governments, proposals for reforming federalism, and regulatory reform.
758 Environmental Politics (3:3:0) The evolution and current state of environmental policymaking. History, strengths, and weaknesses of key U.S. environmental laws and central international environmental agreements. Introduction to analytical approaches, including cost-benefit and risk analysis. Discussion of economic incentives and normative considerations.
759 Issues in Local Government Administration (1-3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and nine graduate credits. May be repeated with different topic. Management and policy formulation in American local governments. Addresses environments, institutions, and actors involved. Contemporary problems, such as education, criminal justice, transportation, land use, economic development, and environmental impact, are examined.
769 Issues in Public Financial Management (1-3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and nine graduate credits. Current issues in budgeting and financial management in contemporary American government. Practical applications of administration and management issues and policy choices at all levels of government are emphasized.
781 Information Management: Technology and Policy (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 680 or permission of instructor. Examines the challenges that organizations encounter as they move to a more technologically sophisticated information and communication environment. Organizational policy issues evolving from new technologies, including privacy, security, authentication, content control, intellectual property, and taxation, are studied, focusing on the effectiveness of previous policy solutions and analyzing proposed solutions.
790 Justice Organization and Administration (3:3:0) Examines the organization and administration of justice and security organizations. Covers organization theory and behavior as applied to justice and security organizations.
791 Justice Program Evaluation (3:3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 611 and 612. Practical exploration of assessment techniques used to study need for and consequences of justice programs and policies. Covers needs assessments, process, and impact evaluations. Includes design and measurement issues for assessing performance of justice programs, and interpreting and presenting results. Emphasizes designing program evaluation for justice agency.
793 Conduct of Justice Organizations at the Street Level (3:3:0) Prerequisite: JLCP 740/GOVT 790 or instructorÕs permission. How justice organizations behave at lowest levels, where service is delivered and discretion is greatest ( suspects, victims, witnesses, police officers, prison guards, parole officers, attorneys, and others who interact with the justice system).
794 Internship (1-6:0:0) Prerequisite: 12 PUAD credits or permission of instructor. Open only to MPA students. Contact internship coordinator one semester before enrollment. Work-study programs with specific employers. Credit is determined by the department.
795 Leadership in Justice and Security Organizations (3:3:0) Prerequisite JLCP 740/PUAD 790 or instructorÕs permission. Examines leadership theories and explores fundamental questions about leadership in justice and security organizations today.
796 Directed Readings and Research (1-3:0:0) Prerequisites: 18 PUAD credits and permission of instructor. Reading and research on a specific topic under the direction of a faculty member. Written report is required; oral examination over the research and report may be required. May be repeated once.
797 Changing Justice and Security Organizations (3:3:0) Prerequisite: JLCP 740/PUAD790 or instructorÕs permission. Examines challenges of changing justice organizations, how changes have been successfully and unsuccessfully implemented in the past, and what change strategies appear to be the most effective.
799 Issues in Justice Administration (1-3:1-3:0) Prerequisites: PUAD 502 and 9 graduate credits. Exploration of current issues in justice administration. Consideration of diverse perspectives on current and emerging issues concerning administration of justice. Emphasis on using theory and evidence to evaluate different viewpoints on issues. Course topics vary, typically focusing on law enforcement, corrections, legal issues and public law, crime control, conflict resolution, victimization experience, technological innovation, public participation in the justice process, or crossnational comparison of justice systems.
821 Doctoral Seminar in Theories of Organization and Bureaucracy (3:3:0) Prerequisite: PUAD 620 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Examination of key issues in organization theory and behavior. Issues include organization design, interorganizational coordination, intelligence and decision-making systems, leadership and motivation theories, and theories or organizations as agents of political and social change. Case studies are used.
840/PUBP 840 Research Seminar in Policy Governance I (2:2:0) to (4:3:1) (variable credit) Prerequisite: admission to doctoral program or permission of instructor. A survey of the major institutions that formulate and implement public policy in the United States. Examines translation of public preferences into public policy and decisions about which societal and economic functions are most appropriately carried out by governments and which are best accomplished by private institutions and individuals.
841/PUBP 841 Research Seminar in Policy Governance II (2-4:2-3:0-1) Prerequisite: admission to doctoral program. This course is the second of a two-semester sequence (PUAD 840, 841) in the governance and public management policy concentration. The division of responsibilities between the several levels of government and between the public and private sectors. Focuses on the impact of these divisions on the development of public policy in several policy areas, such as urban governance, environmental policy, and health care.
998 Doctoral Proposal Research (1-6:0:0) Prerequisite: permission of advisor. Work on a research proposal that forms the basis for a doctoral dissertation.
999 Doctoral Dissertation (1-24:0:0) Prerequisite: permission of participantÕs dissertation committee. Registration for the total credits may be spread over a multisemester contiguous period. PhD candidates must register for at least 3 credits each semester until dissertation completed.