University Catalog 2005-2006

Sociology (SOCI)

Sociology and Anthropology

101 Introductory Sociology (3:3:0) Introduction to basic sociological concepts. Examines aspects of human behavior in a cultural framework including: individual and group interaction, social mobility and stratification, status and class, race and gender relations, urbanism, crime and criminology, and social change and reform.

102 Introduction to Sociological Inquiry (3:3:0) Offers an introduction to sociology through the conduct of original student research, informed by small group and classroom discussion of sociological ideas and methods exemplified by seminal texts. Especially recommended for students considering majoring in sociology, as well as students interested in studying sociology as a liberal art. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 101 and 102.

120 Problems in the Global Society (3:3:0) Introduction to examination and analysis of an important global issue. Considers historical development of the problem and the theoretical analysis of its effect on different societies and cultures. The perception of the problem by different cultures and nations and the efforts of international institutions to address the issue are also investigated. Emphasis is on the interrelationship of social, political, economic, and cultural change in the global society. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 120 and GLOA 101.

300 Social Control and Human Freedom (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Examines how various social institutions function to organize and regulate society. Topics include family, education, ideology, law, media, work, governmental planning, and stratification. Course serves as a foundation of many specialized courses offered by the department, especially those that focus on control of crime and delinquency.

301 Criminology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or permission of instructor. Focuses on causes and meaning of crime, with emphasis on adults. Patterns of criminal behavior, including property crimes, violent crimes, organized crime, white-collar crime, and victimless crime. Critical assessment of criminal justice system as a response to crime.

302 Sociology of Delinquency (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Examination of the social factors involved in the development of delinquency, including family, political economy, schooling, community environment and culture. Examination of various theories of delinquency, the rates of delinquency in relation to age, race, gender and social class, and the legal system that addresses causes, consequences, and policies of punishment and rehabilitation.

303 Sociological Research Methodology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. Introduction to empirical design in sociological research. Historical development, research design, sampling, methods of gathering data, sociometric scales, analysis and interpretation of results, and research reporting.

304 Sociology of Work and Occupations (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Analysis of how societies structure work and allocate economic functions among different groups and classes. Topics include historical and cross-cultural variations in work, the human consequences of industrialization, and the impact of the transition to post-industrial society. Special emphasis on the changing position of professional employees and on the social factors that affect the distribution of opportunity among various groups, and on the growing significance of technology for the future of work.

305 Sociology of Small Groups (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology or permission of instructor. Characteristics, structure, and processes of small group dynamics; theories and models of group analysis, techniques of observation and research in small groups; research theory and application of small group knowledge to such natural groups as mutual aid self-help groups, families, juvenile delinquent gangs, and task groups in work sites.

307 Social Movements and Political Protest (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Explores process by which people organize to resist current social arrangements and create alternative institutions, policies, or leadership. Historical and contemporary case studies of domestic and global change are used to explore how, why, and to what effect various groups have organized to reject status quo and create social change.

308 Racial and Ethnic Relations (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. How race and ethnicity have been shaped by the policies and practices in Western and non-Western societies. Background given on the evolution of racial and ethnic sentiments from the Western colonial period in African, Asian, Middle Eastern and Latin American countries as well as contemporary US racial and ethnic relations. Explores how changing demographic racial patterns may affect future definitions of race and ethnicity.

309 Marriage, Families and Intimate Life (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Focuses on the family in history and family forms in contemporary societies. Looks at interaction within families and the relationship between society and families.

310 Sociology of Deviance (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology or permission of instructor. Analysis of the macro- and microlevel deviance-producing processes, the meaning and control of deviance, and the major theoretical approaches to deviance.

311 Classical Sociological Theory (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 9 credits of sociology including SOCI 101, or permission of instructor. Sociological tradition is explored through readings and discussions of ideas drawn from the writings of selected sociological thinkers such as Comte, Marx, Weber, Durkheim, and others.

313 Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (4:3:2) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or permission of instructor. Fundamentals of applied statistics as used in behavioral science to include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, correlation-regression, analysis of variance, factor analysis, nonparametric statistics, and practical experience with calculators in applying statistical analysis to actual problems of the behavioral sciences.

314 Sociology of Culture (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. Contemporary examination of culture as an aspect of the symbolic order, social institutions, and the everyday practices of social life. Introduces students to a range of different approaches to the sociological study of culture with emphasis on problems of cultural difference and the narrative aspects of culture in the institutions of a democratic society.

315 Sex and Gender in Contemporary Society (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. Changing conceptions of sex roles, both female and male, in contemporary society. Using historical and comparative data, considers differential socialization of males and females in relation to the changing social structure in which it takes place.

320 Human Dimensions of Global Change (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. While focusing on the nature and process of change in human society, students consider the social impact of political, economic and environmental change and how their lives are shaped by the complexities of global social forces. Examines specific global issues such as conflict and security, economic disparity, ecological deterioration, populations and migration, the legitimization of commerce, the diffusion of innovations, and the impact of class, status and power in modern societies.

326 Armed Conflict and Conflict Resolution (3:3:0)Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. Examination of the political, economic and socio-cultural reasons why countries engage in armed conflict. Conflicts within and between states are explored with special focus on the consequences for global, regional and local instability, the loss of life and limb, and the fragmentation of the social, political, and economic fabric of societies. Examines various approaches to conflict resolution.

332 Sociology of Urban Communities (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology including SOCI 101, or permission of instructor. The urban community: historical development, demography, and ecology of metropolitan areas; urbanism as a way of life; the emergence of suburbia; and the future of cities.

340 Power, Politics and Society (3:3:0)SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. Analysis of how power is defined, attained and sustained in society. Students analyze political power as related to social realities such as democratic elections, class conflict, elite networks, power-sharing, protest, and revolution.

350 Community, Diversity and Democracy: A Practicum (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102, or permission of instructor. Develops practical skills for reducing prejudice and building community within diverse workplaces, educational and civic organizations and local neighborhoods. Specific skills taught empower individuals to be effective communicators across differences, work with controversial issues and build multicultural coalitions.

352 Modern Social Problems (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or permission of instructor. Sociological analysis of the problems of modern society, including those related to stratification, urbanism, family and kinship, cultural change, and deviant behavior.

373 The Community (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology including SOCI 101, or permission of instructor. Examination of small to moderately sized communities ranging through the village, rural community, small town, and city subcommunity. The latter category includes city localities, ethnic villages, and suburban communities.

377 Art and Society (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101, 3 credits of ARTH, or permission of instructor. Introduces the many ways in which art reflects social tendencies, comments on social problems, and contributes to discussions about a wide range of social issues. Students attend theatrical performances and visit exhibition spaces on campus, and learn to analyze what they experience through both aesthetic and sociological approaches. Contemporary issues, such as debates about artistic freedom and public morality, the commercialization of art, and the relationship between cultural and social hierarchies, also are explored.

382 Education in Contemporary Society (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology including SOCI 101, or permission of instructor. Study of education as a social institution and its function as a socialization agency for social stability and social change. Emphasizes influences of social class elements on educational process and social organization of the U.S. public school system.

383 Human Services in Society (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or permission of instructor. Analysis of human services emphasizing government-sponsored, nonprofit organizations, and informal voluntary services, and their interrelationships with health care and welfare systems. Comparative analysis of services in other societies. Observation in service agencies.

385 Sociology of Religion (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Study of the place of religious consciousness in human action and the institutional and organizational networks created to sustain religious beliefs. Emphasis on a comparative and historical analysis of the role that religion has played in human society. Examines theories of the nature of religious experience, religious symbolism, and the basis of religious community. Explores changing demographics in relation to older traditional religious faiths and newer non-traditional faiths.

390 Sociology of Health, Illness, and Disability (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology including SOCI 101, or permission of instructor. Examination of social context of health, illness, and disability; the relationships of health care professionals and patients; and the structure and delivery of health care in different medical systems.

399 Independent Study (1-3:0:0) Open to sociology majors only. Prerequisites: 6 credits of sociology including SOCI 101 and approval of a written proposal. Individual study of a sociological topic of interest to the student.

401 Social Class and Social Inequality (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Study of class structures and their implications for individuals and groups in U.S. society. Explores issues of race and ethnicity, language and immigration status, sex and gender, social class, age, and sexual orientation. Students critically examine theory and research that explores the construction, experience and meaning of such differences.

402 Sociology of Punishment and Corrections (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology including SOCI 101, or permission of instructor. Theories explaining forms of punishment systems, punishment and corrections as products of historical, cultural, and political changes, differences by race and gender in punishment and corrections. Problems of social control and violence in prisons, alternative rehabilitation, and community prevention strategies.

405 Analysis of Social Data (4:3:3) Prerequisite: 60 credits, SOCI 313, or permission of instructor. Overview of the management and analysis of empirical social science data, including file construction, scaling and measurement, data transformation, and treatment of missing data. Manipulation, management, and analysis of data sets using computers are emphasized.

410 Social Surveys and Attitude and Opinion Measurements (3:3:0) Prerequisites: SOCI 303 and 313 or equivalents, or permission of instructor. Survey of research methods and techniques to collect, measure, and analyze social data, attitudes, and opinions with special emphasis on using computer software, the Internet, and other information technologies for social research. Ethical issues for social research, computing, and information technology are highlighted.

412 Contemporary Sociological Theory (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 12 credits of sociology including SOCI 101 and 311, or permission of instructor. Contemporary sociological theorists such as Parsons, Merton, Mills, Berger, and Gouldner are analyzed in terms of their relationship to major schools of contemporary sociological theory.

413 Seminar in Social Issues (3:3:0) Prerequisites: 90 credits and 12 credits of sociology. Opportunity to apply to contemporary relevant issues the theoretical perspectives and methodological skills previously learned.

414 Sociology of Language (3:3:0) Prerequisites: 60 credits and 3 credits of sociology, or permission of instructor. Interaction of language and social structure. Focus on language as revealing culturally specific rules of interpretation; the sex, class, race, and setting of specific uniformities in producing talk; and language as it constrains the individual.

416 Internship in Sociology (3:0:0) Prerequisite: 21 credits of sociology, including Research Methods, or permission of instructor. Intended to promote learning in the application of sociological knowledge and build skills in different work settings. Students work in approved setting as applied sociologists. Minimum of 40 credits of work for each credit hour is required.

421 Field Work in Social Change (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology or permission of instructor. In-depth investigation of planned social change through field work internship with a change organization of studentÕs choice. Groups may be involved in influencing peace, environment, civil rights, consumer protection, poverty, or other public issues. Topics include ideologies, targets, organizational structures, opposition, and strategies of change.

441 The Sociology of Aging (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 6 credits of sociology or permission of instructor. Aging from a sociological perspective. Topics covered include demographic trends and the aging population in America, the social construction of life stages and the creation of Òold age,Ó cultural labeling, and human resistance.

450 The Holocaust: The Construction of Social History through Survivor Testimonies (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 60 credits or permission of instructor. Examines the Holocaust, the destruction of European Jewry, through testimonies of survivors and narratives of historians. Topics include historical and cultural circumstances that encouraged German anti-Semitism; the rise of Nazism; ghettoization of the Jews in Poland; Jewish life in the ghettos; European Jews under Nazi occupation; Jewish resistance; Christian rescuers; invasion of Russia and mobile killing units; life in hiding and passing, forced labor camps, and concentration camps; the United StatesÕ and the worldÕs responses; and reflections on the Holocaust today. Eyewitness testimony, memory, narrative, and literature are also considered.

455 Qualitative Research Methods (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 9 credits of sociology including SOCI 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. Introduction to the use of ethnography, fieldwork methods, interviewing, life histories and other qualitative methods to generate data about the cultures in which various groups and classes are immersed. Students learn by applying qualitative methods to term projects, developed under the guidance of the instructor.

471 Prevention and Deterrence of Crime (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 60 credits, in-service status, or permission of instructor. Theoretical and practical strategies for crime prevention and deterrence. Social, environmental, and mechanical developments. Police, courts, and correctional elements of law enforcement in terms of current effectiveness and future potential for crime prevention.

475/575 Women and the Law (3:3:0) Prerequisite for 475: 60 credits or permission of instructor. Prerequisite for 575: Undergraduate senior status in sociology or graduate standing. Analyzes the changing position of women in law from both a legal and a sociological perspective. Focuses on how the law defines and regulates womenÕs rights in a variety of areas such as employment, marriage and divorce, reproduction and control of oneÕs body, and violence against women. Explores the social and economic consequences of various legal doctrines and compares laws and policies in the United States with those in other countries.

480, 481 Honors Seminar in Sociology I, Honors Seminar in Sociology II (3:0:0), (3:0:0) Prerequisite: admission to the sociology honors program and permission of instructor. Linked, sequential courses, normally given by the same instructor. SOCI 480 involves the application of theoretical and methodological knowledge to the analysis of a social issue that serves as the courseÕs central theme. SOCI 481 culminates in the preparation and presentation of a substantive research paper.

482 Honors Internship in Sociology (3:0:0) Prerequisites: admission to the Sociology Honors Program and permission of instructor. Research internship that is intended to provide students with hands-on experience in sociology and the opportunity to do research within approved work settings. In addition to 120 hours of field work (for 3 credits), students meet at the discretion of the instructor to plan their research and share their ongoing field work experiences.

483 The Sociology of Higher Education (3:3:0) Prerequisite: 60 credits. Exposes students to sociological theory and research on the evolution of higher learning in the United States; explore the social forces that have shaped the distinctively American approach toward higher education and have led to the transformation of higher education in contemporary society. Particular attention to relation between universities and elites within the surrounding society; the linkage between education and industry; the norms and values that are presupposed by educational institutions; and the bearing of sports on the values and traditions of higher education.

492 McDonaldization of Organizations (3:3:0) Theories and analysis of types of organizations from informal voluntary associations to large complex ones. Nonprofit organizations and alternatives to bureaucracies, such as feminist collectives, cooperatives, self-help groups, and social movement organizations are explored. Students do field work in organizations applying theories and concepts to their observations.

499 Independent Research in Sociology (1-4:0:0) Prerequisite: 18 credits of sociology including SOCI 311, 313, and 412; a 3.000 GPA in sociology; and a research proposal approved by instructor and department chair before enrollment. Investigation of a sociological problem according to individual interest with emphasis on research.

503 Sociology of Law (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. Classical and contemporary sociological theories applied to law and legal institutions. Social relations between the law and the community, special group interests, social change, and social deviance. Case studies. Consideration of the legal profession.

505 Sociology of Sex and Gender (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. Advanced study of sex roles in contemporary society. Using historical and comparative data, course examines perceived, prescribed, and actual sex differentiation in social, political, and economic roles.

515 Applying Sociology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology or graduate standing. Overview of the ways sociologists have applied their theoretical and methodological skills and understanding in sociological practice in nonacademic settings.

516 Internship in Sociology (1-6:1-6:0) Prerequisites: 21 credits of sociology including research methods, or permission of instructor. Learning experience in the application of sociological knowledge and skills in different work settings. Students work in an approved setting as applied sociologists. Minimum 40 hours of work for every 1 credit.

523 Racial and Ethnic Relations: American and Selected Global Perspectives (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. Demographic purview of U.S. racial and ethnic groups; racial and ethnic groups as human-social-minority groups. Factors making for minority status including personality factors, group cultural factors; reactions of racial, ethnic minorities to minority status; programs, methods, social movements, and philosophies seeking to change minority group status.

525 Current Research in Sex and Gender (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. Advanced study of the current social science research and research methodology used in the study of sex and gender.

530 Methods and Logic of Social Inquiry (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology or graduate status and undergraduate statistics and research methodology or permission of instructor. Emphasizes the gathering, interpretation, and evaluation of scientific evidence. Course develops critical-thinking skills by using a set of rules and logical criteria for the evaluation of social science research. Covers the logic of scientific inquiry, including various data collection methods, such as observational research and experiments, types of variables, causality, and how to distinguish between good and bad research in the published literature.

531 Statistical Reasoning (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing and undergraduate statistics and research methodology or permission of instructor. Intermediate treatment of the statistical methods used in the analysis of social data. Topics include sampling, inference, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, linear regression, and correlation. Introduction to the logic of multivariate analysis is included.

550 The Holocaust (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology or graduate status. Examines the Holocaust, the destruction of European Jewry, through testimonies of survivors and the narratives of historians. Topics include the historical and cultural circumstances that encouraged German anti-Semitism; the rise of Nazism; the ghettoization of the Jews in Poland; Jewish life in the ghettos; European Jews under Nazi occupation; Jewish resistance; Christian rescuers; the invasion of Russia and mobile killing units; life in hiding and passing, forced labor camps, and concentration camps; the United StatesÕ and the worldÕs responses; and reflections on the Holocaust today. Eyewitness testimony, memory, narrative, and literature are also considered.

590 Gender, Race, and the Natural World (3:3:0) Prerequisites: undergraduate seniors, graduate standing, or permission of instructor. Advanced study of the links among gender, race, and nature using a social-psychological framework, original sources, and seminar discussion format. A critical analysis of the ideologies that underpin the interlocking narratives of gender, race, and nature and an examination of the role of science in production of those ideologies.

599/NURS 611 Issues in Sociology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: undergraduate senior status in sociology or graduate status. Contemporary topics in sociology including sociological theory, crime and delinquency, advanced research methods, social and cultural change, urban sociology, medical sociology, sociology of aging, and rural sociology. May be taken only once for credit.

607 Criminology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Crime and crime causation. Topics include social basis of law, administration of justice, and control and prevention of crime.

608 Juvenile Delinquency (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Sociology of adolescent behavior. Sociological factors that determine which behaviors and social categories of adolescents are likely to be labeled and treated as delinquent.

609 Sociology of Punishment and Corrections (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Understanding the development of modern penal system as interpreted by various perspectives, including Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Foucault, Elias, and Garland. Explores recent trends and problems, including social control and violence in prisons, race and gender disparities in punishment, alternative rehabilitation, and prevention strategies.

611 Classical Sociological Theory (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. In-depth examination of major issues in classical (pre-1930) sociological theory. Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Mead, and others are analyzed, and the social and intellectual context of their theories is emphasized.

612 Contemporary Sociological Theory (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Schools in contemporary sociological theory such as structural-functionalism, conflict, exchange, symbolic interactionism, ethno-methodology, humanist sociology, and critical theory are examined. Contemporary theorists are analyzed in relation to the schools.

614 Sociology of Culture (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Analysis of 20th-century debates in American culture, and cultural politics, with emphasis on art and popular culture, the news media, and competing notions of Òthe public.Ó In-depth readings in cultural sociology cover a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches.

616 Internship in Sociology (1-6:0:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing. Intended to provide learning experiences in the application of sociological knowledge and skills in different work settings. Students work in an approved setting as applied sociologists. A minimum of 40 hours of work are required for each credit.

619 Conflict and Conflict Management: Perspectives from Sociology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing in sociology or conflict analysis and resolution, or permission of instructor. Deals with the sociology of conflict. Such major sociological theories of conflict as those of Marx, Weber, Simmel, Dahrendorf, Coser, and Collins are presented. The role that sociological conflict theory plays in undergirding conflict management practices is stressed.

630 Analytic Techniques of Social Research (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing and undergraduate statistics and research methodology, or permission of instructor. Focus on general linear model and multiple regression analysis in nonexperimental data. Range of topics include logic of causal analysis, multicollinarity, influential observations, categorical independent and dependent variables, violation of assumptions, missing data, structural equation and measurement models, and discrete multivariate analysis.

631 Survey Research (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 530, SOCI 531, or permission of instructor. Introduction to the theory, method, and practice of survey research design and analysis. Students complete a survey research project.

632 Evaluation Research for Social Programs (3:3:0) Prerequisite: SOCI 530, SOCI 531, or permission of instructor. Study of methodological issues related to the evaluation of social programs. Conceptual and research design issues are explored in relation to social programs, particularly the delivery of social services. Includes the examination of methods used to assess the need for the programs, impact of delivery systems, and the efficiency and effectiveness of social programs.

633 Special Topics in Sociology (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor.

634 Qualitative Research Methods (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Examination of basic research methods involving observational techniques and procedures used in description and analysis of the patterns, configurations, ethos, eidos, structures, functions, and styles typical of whole societies and cultures. Emphasis is on case studies, unobtrusive methods, participant observation, long-term residence, choices of observer status role, recording data, uses of technical equipment, key informants, interviewing techniques, and ethical considerations in employing such methods and procedures.

635 Environment and Society. (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing. Overview of human ecology and environmental sociology, emphasizing selected topics. Focuses on theory, since theory makes it possible to generalize from understandings derived in an analysis of a particular problem and apply them to other problems.

640 Social Theory and Social Policy (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Major theories of social organization and social change as a means of understanding social policy development. Concentration is on social policies in American society.

650 Issues in the Sociology of Health, Illness, and Disability (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Social context of disease and medical care, the position of the professions in the medical care structure, the delivery of medical care, and the physician-patient relationship under different systems of practice.

651 (551) Health Care Systems (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Changing health care systems are rapidly affecting patient providers and health and quality of life of the society. Analysis and theories of change in health care systems and their impacts on society and various stakeholders. For-profit and nonprofit organizations and their impacts are examined. Comparative cross-cultural analysis of health care systems.

660/860 Historical and Comparative Sociology (3:3:0) Prerequisites: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Seminar in the theory and methods of historical and comparative sociology, primarily for students with a background in sociological theory and methods. Examination of the basic approaches and research data of history and sociology, a survey of the development of the field, and an analysis of exemplary studies.

686 Sociology of Aging (3:3:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Analysis of sociological issues in aging. Issues include class and cultural factors, problems of work, retirement, attachment and loss, and ageism. Different theories of aging are examined.

692 McDonaldization of Organizations (3:3:0) Pre-requisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Classical and contemporary theories and analysis governing formal organizations, their development, characteristics and relationships to society are examined. Alternative concep-tuali-zations to bureaucracy considered such as learning organizations, self-help groups, feminist collectives, cooperatives, and social movement organizations. Nonprofit, governmental, and business organizations are dissected.

696, 697 Independent Study (3:0:0), (3:0:0) Prerequisite: graduate standing or permission of instructor. Theoretical and research literature chosen by student and instructor.

799 Thesis (1-6:0:0) Graded S/NC.

800 Studies for the Doctor of Philosophy in Education (variable credit) Prerequisite: admission to PhD in education program to study in sociology. Program of studies designed by studentÕs discipline director and approved by studentÕs doctoral committee, which brings the student to participate in the current research of the discipline director and results in a paper reporting the original contributions of the student. Enrollment may be repeated.