George Mason University 1997-98 Catalog Catalog Index
Course Descriptions

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Graduate School of Education




The Graduate School of Education (GSE) prepares scholars and practitioners in education through programs of study that have become increasingly multidisciplinary in response to the richness and complexity of a pluralistic society. In addition to providing the framework for the integration and application of knowledge from a variety of disciplines, the curricula of the school provide the opportunity for students to examine, evaluate, and practice professional knowledge, skills, and techniques. Because educational endeavors may respond to individual and group needs in many ways, the function of the faculty goes beyond imparting knowledge to include engaging students in critical thinking, research, analysis, and problem-solving activities.


Administration

Gustavo A. Mellander, Dean
Martin E. Ford, Associate Dean
Clark Dobson, Assistant Dean
Mary Anne Lecos, Director of Teacher Education


Faculty

Professors: Behrmann, Bowen (Dean Emeritus), Collier, Dede, Ford, Gilstrap, Isenberg, Jacob, Levy, Martin, Mellander, Seligman, Spikell, Wallace, Williams

Associate Professors: Bartholomew, Bonfadini, Chu, Coleman, Dobson, Duck, Dunklee, Dzama, Given, Goor, Hazari, Jones, Lecos, Lepard, Murray, Pierce, Razeghi, Sanchez, Smith, C. Thomas, W. Thomas, Thorp, White

Assistant Professors: Bannan, Davison Aviles, Haley, Phipps, Porter, Sprague, Sterling, Sturtevant

Administrative Faculty: Anderson, Gangloff

Visiting Assistant Professor: Schnorr


Course Work

The Graduate School of Education enrolls students preparing for specific professions. The school offers all course work designated COMC, EDCC, EDCD, EDCI, EDIT, EDLE, EDRD, EDRS, EDSE, EDSP, and EDUC in the Course Descriptions section of this catalog.


Honors Program and New Century College

Students enrolled at George Mason University may fulfill their general education requirements through regular degree programs, the Honors Program in General Education, or by taking interdisciplinary courses in the New Century College.


Professional Licensure

The Graduate School of Education is responsible for professional courses, special standards, and licensure recommendation for students desiring to complete requirements for licensure in state-approved and National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)-accredited programs preparing teachers, administrators, counselors, and related instructional personnel.


Teacher Licensure Programs

During 1991-92, the undergraduate teacher licensure programs in Early Childhood Education and Middle Education were phased out and replaced by graduate-level programs. These changes and other restructuring of teacher education programs were in accordance with the state-mandated elimination of undergraduate education degrees as a basis for licensure in areas other than physical education, the arts, and vocational education.

The Virginia Board of Education is considering changes in licensure endorsements and requirements, which could cause additional restructuring in 1998 and thereafter. However, through 1997-98, the following state-approved licensure programs are available:

Undergraduate Teacher Education Programs:

Graduate-Level Teacher Education Programs: * Add-on endorsement only Special Education English as a Second Language (PK-12) add-on endorsement for Early Childhood, Middle Education, Special Education, or other license

Detailed instructions about the admissions process and program requirements are available in program handbooks and at group information sessions provided by the Office of Teacher Education (703) 993-2080. Distributed at these monthly sessions are graduate applications, Praxis registration forms, program handbooks, course requirements, and other essential information.

Application deadlines are fall, April 1; spring, November 1; and summer, March 1 (except the Professional Development School Model, for which the deadline is September 1, and the Flexible Alternative Model, October 1.)


Licensure for Early Childhood/Middle Education

Undergraduates who wish to become licensed teachers in Early Childhood (PK-3) or Middle Education (4-8) must first obtain a B.A./B.S. in the arts/sciences (or the equivalent in general studies). They may apply during the senior year to be admitted to the Graduate School of Education for professional study as a graduate student, but should contact Academic Advising Services or the Office of Teacher Education earlier about requirements.

Students seeking Early Childhood Education licensure may major in any of the arts/sciences. Students seeking Middle Education licensure should major in a discipline taught in the middle grades (English, a social science, mathematics, or a natural science) and have a second concentration of 15 or more hours in another of these disciplines. Consult the Office of Teacher Education for detailed information.

Semester Hours
1. General Education Requirements 51
    A. English and Communication (English composition required)
15
    B. Social Sciences (U.S. History required)
12
    C. Health or Physical Education
3
    D. Natural Sciences
6-8
    E. Mathematics
9
    F. Fine Arts/Philosophy
6
2. Prerequisite Undergraduate Professional Courses
    EDUC 300: Introduction to Teaching
3
3. Graduate Professional Courses
    Consult the Office of Teacher Education for detailed information about the full-time Professional Development School Model or the part-time Flexible Alternative Model for licensure. The number of required semester hours varies by model.
36-45


Licensure for Secondary Education

The Secondary Education Program has three components:


Semester Hours
1. Courses in the teaching discipline (as developed by the College of Arts and Sciences and the Graduate School of Education)

Recommended majors for teacher licensure include biology, chemistry, English, French, German, geology, government, history, Latin, mathematics, physics, and Spanish. However, these majors are not necessary for secondary education licensure. Consult the Office of Teacher Education for information about course requirements for specific disciplines.

30-71
2. General Education Requirements
    A. Humanities (English composition required)
12
    B. Social Sciences (U.S. History required)
12
    C. Health or Physical Education
    One or more courses in either or both
3
    D. Laboratory Science and Mathematics/Analytical Reasoning
    (At least one course in each)
13
    E. Electives 6
    From the humanities and/or social sciences
    Note: Twelve semester hours in a foreign language are recommended.
3. Professional Courses Requirements
Students who wish to be licensed in a secondary school discipline must complete a graduate-level, 27-hour licensure program in education. Undergraduates may take up to six hours of professional courses for Reserve Graduate Credit.

Recommended courses for Reserve Graduate Credit are the following:

EDUC 522 Introduction to Secondary Education
EDUC 539 Psychological Foundations
of Adolescent Learning and Development
EDUC 529 Pluralism and Exceptionality
in U.S. Education

All students must have an approved plan of study prepared by the Licensure Specialist in the Office of Teacher Education. Students should consult with the secondary education adviser in the department discipline as well as the appropriate discipline adviser in the Graduate School of Education. Students interested in licensure should also consult the Office of Teacher Education for secondary education admission requirements, licensure requirements, and additional courses needed to earn an M.Ed.


Licensure for Special Education

Semester Hours
1. General Education Requirements
Same as those listed above for Secondary Education. Required for initial licensure only.

46
2. Licensure and Advanced Master's Course Work
Consult the Office of Teacher Education for detailed information about the number of semester hours required for each specific endorsement area:
Emotional Disturbance/Learning Disabilities (ED/LD)
Severe Disabilities (SD)
or Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE)

46-49
Unified Teacher Education Model (UTEM)
This program provides licensure in Early Childhood Education, Special Education, and English as a Second Language, and prepares candidates to work with multicultural clients (ages 0-8) and their families in school and community settings.

General Education Requirements
(English Composition, U.S. History, and 6 credit hours of foreign language are required.)

To learn about specific program requirements, attend a monthly group information session. For information, call (703) 993-2080.

52



Master of Education Programs (including Licensure)

The Graduate School of Education offers five Master of Education degree programs: Counseling and Development, Curriculum and Instruction, Education Leadership, Educational Technology, and Special Education. Within each of these degree programs is a variety of specializations reflecting a wide range of educational and community agency roles. Programs are available to meet the needs of the following:
  1. Persons seeking initial teacher licensure with the option of earning a master's degree
  2. Persons licensed as teachers, who wish to complete a master's degree for personal enrichment or professional advancement, as well as for endorsement in an additional teaching area, counseling, administration, or supervision
  3. Persons seeking preparation in a specialization not requiring a Virginia teaching license or endorsement
The Graduate School of Education and other units at George Mason University also offer courses for educators' continuing professional development and/or licensure renewal. However, licensure renewal requirements are determined by the Virginia Department of Education or the employing school division.

These programs are approved by the State Board of Education and accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and NCATE.

Program requirements in GSE are subject to change, especially in those programs leading to licensure or endorsement in teaching, school counseling, school administration, or supervision. It is the student's responsibility to know the university and program requirements in effect at the time of admission, and to have these requirements confirmed by the assigned academic adviser. Lists of specific course requirements for each degree program and licensure area are available from GSE. Admitted students who do not know the names of their academic advisers should contact the Office of Academic Student Affairs in GSE before attempting to register for courses.

Some degree programs in Counseling and Development, Curriculum and Instruction, and Special Education require successful completion of a comprehensive examination in the final semester of study. Students interested in research may elect to prepare a thesis in lieu of the comprehensive examination, but must receive program approval for this option before the final semester of study. They must also include EDRS 590 and EDUC 599 within the requirements of their programs.


Course Work

Prefixes for courses in the M.Ed. programs offered by GSE are as follows:

EDLE: Education Leadership
EDCD: Counseling and Development
EDCI: Elementary/Middle/Secondary Curriculum and Instruction
EDIT: Instructional Technology
EDRD: Reading
EDRS: Research
EDSE: Special Education
EDUC: Foundations/Support Courses



Curriculum and Instruction, M.Ed.

  • Introduction
  • Initial Teacher Licensure with M.Ed. Degree Option
  • Admission Requirements for Teacher Licensure Programs
  • Teacher Licensure Program Requirements
  • FAST-TRAIN Program (K-8)
  • M.Ed. Programs for Persons Licensed or Experienced as Educators
  • Admission Requirements
  • Program Requirements The Master of Education degree with a major in Curriculum and Instruction is offered as an option for persons preparing for initial teacher licensure, and also in five specializations for persons who are licensed or experienced educators.


    Initial Teacher Licensure with M.Ed. Degree Option

    GSE offers the following state-approved programs for initial licensure or add-on endorsement. Through reciprocity agreements, Virginia licensure is recognized fully or partially by more than 39 other states.

    Early Childhood Education (Grades PK-3). With or without endorsement for Teaching English as a Second Language

    Middle Education (Grades 4-8). With or without endorsement for Teaching English as a Second Language

    Secondary Education (Grades 6-12). Biology, chemistry, earth/space sciences, physics, English, English as a second language, French, German, history/social sciences, Latin, mathematics, Russian, Spanish; and for add-on endorsement only¬economics, geography, government, psychology, sociology, and speech communication

    Special Education. Early Childhood Special Education (Ages 0-5), Emotional Disturbance/Learning Disabilities (PK-12), Severe Disabilities (PK-12)

    Unified Teacher Education Model (UTEM). This program provides licensure in Early Childhood Education, Special Education, and English as a Second Language, and prepares candidates to work with multicultural clients (ages 0-8) and their families in school and community settings.

    In addition, the Office of Teacher Education supports the following undergraduate initial teacher licensure programs, which are offered through other units at the university.

    Music Education (Grades PK-12). Instrumental, Vocal, and General (offered through the Department of Music in the College of Arts and Sciences)

    Physical Education (Grades PK-12). With endorsement for Health Education (offered through Health, Fitness, and Recreation Resources)

    Students also may partially meet Virginia licensure requirements through the M.A. Track IV program offered by the Department of History in the College of Arts and Sciences or through the Teaching English as a Second Language graduate certificate program offered by the Department of English in the College of Arts and Sciences.


    Admission Requirements for Teacher Licensure Programs

    All graduate-level teacher licensure programs provide the M.Ed. option through the completion of course work beyond what is required for licensure. Whether or not applicants seek the degree, they must meet the following admission requirements for graduate study:
    1. A baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution

    2. A grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 on the last 60 hours of undergraduate study. (Students may be admitted provisionally with a GPA of at least 2.75, if there is additional evidence that the applicant can succeed in a graduate-level program.)

      In addition, applicants must submit the following:

    1. An expanded goals statement concerning professional plans and career objectives

    2. Three letters of recommendation from individuals qualified to assess potential for success as a graduate student or teacher

    3. Passing scores on the Praxis tests of basic skills

    4. A transcript analysis (called the departmental form) showing unmet requirements for the desired licensure area

      In addition, an interview may be required as part of the admission process.

    Teacher Licensure Program Requirements

    All initial teacher licensure programs have general education requirements, professional course work, and additional course work for the M.Ed. degree. Early Childhood and Middle Education licensure programs also have prerequisite professional course work. Most professional course work includes school-based field experience and internships. The requirements for each program are summarized below. Lists of specific courses for each licensure area are available from the Office of Teacher Education, Robinson Hall, Room A307.


    Early Childhood/Middle Education
    General Education Prerequisites: 51-53 semester hours in English/communications, social sciences, math/statistics/logic, natural sciences, fine arts/philosophy, and health/physical education. For Middle Education, applicants should have concentrations of at least 12 to 15 hours in two of the disciplines taught in grades 4-8.

    Prerequisite Professional Course Work: 3 semester hours (may be taken as an undergraduate)

    Professional Course Work: 36-49 semester hours of course work and internship in the Professional Development School (PDS) or Flexible Alternative (FLEX) model

    The PDS model includes full-time study and work in public schools for four academic sessions. A stipend is paid for the intern's service as an instructional assistant and substitute teacher.

    The FLEX model includes six academic sessions of part-time study, culminating in a 15-week, full-time internship. No stipend is paid.

    Additional Course Work for M.Ed.: 6 semester hours

    For add-on endorsement in Teaching English as a Second Language: 27 semester hours of professional course work, 6 of which are in a foreign language.


    Secondary Education
    General Education: 46 semester hours in the humanities and social sciences, laboratory science/math/analytical reasoning, and health/physical education. Study of a foreign language is recommended.

    Content Area: Vary from 30 to 71 according to endorsement area. Determined by departmental faculty from the College of Arts and Sciences.

    Professional Course Work: 27 semester hours, including a full-time, 15-week internship. Six hours may be taken as an undergraduate.

    Additional Course Work for M.Ed.: 15 semester hours


    Special Education
    General Education: Same as for secondary education

    Licensure and Advanced Master's Course Work: 46-49 semester hours, depending on the area of licensure; including 15-45 weeks of internship


    Unified Teacher Education Model (UTEM)
    General Education: 52 semester hours

    Licensure and Advanced Master's Course Work: 63 semester hours


    FAST-TRAIN Program (K-8)

    FAST-TRAIN is an alternative teacher licensure program that prepares teachers for international assignments. The curriculum consists of six required education courses offered over a one-year period. Upon successful completion of course work and passing scores on the Praxis series of tests, participants receive a Statement of Eligibility, and upon employment apply for provisional Virginia teaching licensure at the K-8 (Elementary/Middle Education) level. Once students have also completed one year of teaching abroad, they are eligible for the Collegiate Professional License, the regular license for Virginia teachers.

    All courses have an international, multicultural emphasis reflecting the student populations abroad. Two courses are offered each semester, and the six can be completed in one year. All courses have a 20-hour field experience component, half of which is spent in K-3 classrooms and the other half at the 4-8 level. Program enrollees are not eligible for student teaching in the United States due to the alternative nature of the curriculum.

    For further information about admission and program requirements, contact the coordinator of FAST-TRAIN, Robinson Hall, Room A451, (703) 993-3689.


    M.Ed. Programs for Persons Licensed or Experienced as Educators

    The curriculum and instruction major includes the following specializations:

    Early Childhood Education (PK-3)
    Middle Education (4-8)
    Secondary Education (8-12)
    Bilingual/Multicultural Education (PK-12)
    Teaching English as a Second Language (PK-12)

    These programs prepare students who have completed beginning-level study and practice for leadership roles¬such as lead teacher or trainer, resource teacher, or curriculum coordinator¬and partially meet state licensure requirements for instructional and supervisory personnel.


    Admission Requirements

    Applicants for the M.Ed. degree in Curriculum and Instruction must
    1. Meet the general admissions requirement of a GPA of 3.0 for the last 60 hours of undergraduate study;
    2. Be licensed as teachers or have several years successful experience as a teacher/trainer or educational administrator;
    3. Submit recommendations by three persons qualified to judge his or her professional competence;
    4. Submit an expanded goals statement; and
    5. Be recommended for admission, possibly after an interview.


    Program Requirements

    All Curriculum and Instruction M.Ed. specializations require nine semester hours of course work in foundations, research, and advanced seminar. The number of specialized courses and electives varies by specialization, with total requirements of at least 30 semester hours.

    The specific course work required for each specialization is available from the Program Information Specialist in Robinson Hall, Room A326A, (703) 993-4648.



    Counseling and Development, M.Ed.

    The M.Ed. program in Counseling and Development prepares students for careers as counselors and human development professionals in a variety of work settings, including elementary, middle, and secondary schools; colleges and universities; and community mental health agencies. The program develops students' competencies in a broad range of counseling skills, including multicultural/diversity issues, group and individual counseling, career counseling, and assessment. The program emphasizes the integration of theory and practice, and prepares knowledgeable and capable helping professionals for a wide range of employment settings. The culmination of the students' program is an internship in an educational or mental health agency counseling setting similar to that in which they hope to be employed. This offers students the opportunity to test and refine their counseling skills while experiencing the counselor role.

    Degree applicants must have an undergraduate GPA of at least 3.0, at least one year of experience relevant to the profession of counseling, and evidence of personal and professional qualities compatible with the role of the counselor. In addition, the applicant must do the following:

    1. Possess a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution
    2. Have successfully completed a minimum of 12 semester hours in the behavioral sciences (courses taken to make up undergraduate prerequisites cannot be used to fulfill degree requirements)
    3. Submit three letters of recommendation from supervisors or professors regarding his or her potential as a counselor
    4. Submit a statement of interests and objectives
    5. Be interviewed and recommended for acceptance
    Applicants preparing for school counseling positions and seeking the M.Ed. degree also must have completed two years of successful full-time teaching, or two years of successful experience in counseling.

    Individuals with a master's degree in education or in a helping profession may wish to apply to the program as a nondegree student. Qualified nondegree students may plan programs leading to Virginia endorsement as a school counselor or to licensure as a professional counselor in Virginia. Applicants for nondegree status must submit two letters of recommendation from supervisors or professors and a statement of interests and objectives.

    The M.Ed. in Counseling and Development program offers the following areas of specialization:

    School Counseling and Development. Prepares students for careers as elementary, middle, and secondary school counselors. The program ensures that graduates possess the academic and experiential prerequisites for endorsement as a school counselor by the Virginia State Department of Education.

    Higher Education Counseling and Development. Prepares counselors and student development professionals who share with teaching faculty the responsibility for humanizing and personalizing each student's experience in higher education. Graduates of the program are employed in a wide variety of positions in post-secondary education.

    Community Agency Counseling and Development. Prepares counselors for employment in a wide range of settings, including community mental health centers; agencies specializing in career counseling; family counseling centers; rehabilitation agencies; and counseling programs in business, industry, federal, state, and local governments.

    The M.Ed. in Counseling and Development program usually requires 40-49 semester hours. The specific requirements in each area of specialization are available from the Program Information Specialist in Robinson Hall, Room A326A, (703) 993-4648.



    Education Leadership, M.Ed.

    The M.Ed. in Education Leadership offers programs for persons interested in school positions in administration and supervision (including such positions as principal, assistant principal, department chairperson, team leader, supervisor, or director of instruction).

    Degree applicants must satisfy the following requirements:

    1. A GPA of at least 3.0 in the last 60 hours of undergraduate study
    2. Three letters of recommendation about one's leadership potential, including at least one from a current or former supervisor
    3. Two years of successful teaching experience, including a portion at the level at which Virginia endorsement is desired
    The M.Ed. in Education Leadership usually requires 33 or 36 hours of graduate credit. These include course work in educational research, computer technology, leadership, school administration, supervision of instruction, and a culminating three- or six-credit hour internship.

    Candidates for Virginia endorsement in school administration or supervision must complete the program approved by the State Board of Education. Specific requirements for the M.Ed. in Education Leadership and for Virginia endorsement are available from the Program Information Specialist in Robinson Hall, Room A326A, (703) 993-4648.



    Instructional Technology, M.Ed.

    The M.Ed. in Instructional Technology program provides professionals with the specialized knowledge and skills needed to apply a wide range of computer-based technologies in achieving instructional goals in both school and corporate/public settings. The program has several tracks that prepare individuals for a variety of instructional technology roles in education and training.

    In addition to meeting the general requirements for admission to GSE, candidates for the Instructional Technology specialization must have teaching or training experience and complete the following prerequisite courses (or demonstrate proficiency in the content of those courses): introductory courses in educational technology (e.g., the equivalent of EDIT 504) and introductory courses in a programming language. Prerequisite courses cannot be counted toward degree requirements. An interview with the IT coordinator may be required for all tracks; an interview with a Computer Science Department faculty liaison is required for entry into the Computer Science Educator track.

    Specific requirements for the M.Ed. in Instruction Technology are available from the Program Information Specialist in Robinson Hall, Room A326A, (703) 993-4648.



    Special Education, M.Ed.

    The M.Ed. in Special Education program is designed to enable qualified individuals to become specialists in emotional disturbance/learning disabilities combined (ED/LD), early childhood special education (ECSE), severe disabilities (SD), and special education technology (SET). Completion of program course work in ECSE, SD, and ED/LD allows the student to meet endorsement requirements in Virginia. The specialization in SET does not lead to teacher licensure or endorsement.

    Degree applicants must have an undergraduate GPA of at least 3.0. In addition, the applicant must do the following:

    1. Possess a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution, preferably in a human services area such as education, psychology, sociology, or allied health services
    2. Submit three letters of recommendation by persons qualified to judge his or her potential as a special educator
    3. 3Submit a written autobiographical narrative
    4. Be interviewed upon request and recommended for acceptance
    A minimum of 33 graduate credit hours is required for a master's degree. Most students enroll in 46-49 graduate credit hours depending on previous course work. The specific requirements for these areas are available from the Program Information Specialist in Robinson Hall, Room 326A, (703) 993-4648.



    Education, Ph.D.

    GSE offers a Ph.D. in Education as its terminal degree in education. The Ph.D. degree provides advanced professional education for experienced educational practitioners pursuing or planning careers in nontraditional and traditional educational settings.

    The Ph.D. requires a minimum of 85 semester hours of study beyond the baccalaureate degree or a minimum of 55 semester hours beyond the master's degree. A limited number of graduate hours taken previously may be applied to the program. However, an individual's total program may require more semester hours than these minimum requirements depending on the individual's goals, program requirements, and previous preparation.

    With the guidance of the graduate faculty, students develop individual programs of study in concert with their goals, program requirements, and self-assessed skills and knowledge. Each student's program must include study in a professional field such as educational administration, educational technology, special education, curriculum, instruction, bilingual education, counseling and development, early childhood education, or literacy. The specific nature of courses is determined by the student in conjunction with a faculty doctoral advising committee during the first year of study. Students also complete a minor area of study consisting of 15 semester hours.


    Program Goals

    To complete the Ph.D. program, each student must demonstrate competence in oral and written English; computer literacy; mastery of the knowledge and skills in the area of professional expertise; and the ability to apply general and specific knowledge and skills to significant educational problems. Students demonstrate these competencies by successfully completing courses and seminars, by passing a special written comprehensive qualifying examination at the conclusion of program course work, and by preparing and orally defending a doctoral dissertation.

    Students have five years from the time they enroll in their first class to complete all course work and the comprehensive examination. Five additional years, starting with the date on which students are advanced to candidacy, are allowed to complete the dissertation.


    Residency

    The purposes of residency are achieved in the Ph.D. program through a combination of core courses and seminars, and through continuous enrollment. These requirements include successful completion of the Leadership seminar and the Ways of Knowing seminar. Students must enroll in at least one approved course each semester they are in the program.


    Internship

    Candidates enroll in at least one and up to three internships designed to broaden their professional expertise. These internships may occur in a variety of settings. One three-credit internship must be taken in a setting that differs from the student's work setting. In all internships, the student works with university and on-site supervisors.


    Admission Requirements

    Candidates are admitted to study by GSE. Admission is highly selective. Applicants must fulfill the following program admission requirements:
    1. A minimum of three years of successful experience as a practitioner in an educational setting
    2. A baccalaureate and/or master's degree from an accredited institution
    3. Demonstrated high intellectual capability
    4. Demonstrated leadership potential
    5. Three letters of recommendation
    6. Graduate Record Examination test scores
    7. A written goals statement relating study in the Ph.D. program to his or her educational and career plans
    For further information about admission and program requirements, contact the Ph.D. Office at (703) 993-2011. Completed applications must be submitted to the GSE Office of Admissions by February 1 for admission for the following summer or fall, or by September 1 for admission for the following January.



    Community College Education, D.A.

    The Doctor of Arts in Community College Education is administered by the National Center for Community College Education. Course work leading to the degree educates prospective community college teachers and helps current community college faculty members become more effective teachers. The program emphasizes a broad knowledge base in the student's teaching field as well as courses in research and in the history and philosophy of the community college. Students select courses from designated departments in the university to develop a program of study. Knowledge areas include biology, business administration, computer science, economics, educational leadership, English, modern and classical languages, health and physical education, history, information systems, international transactions, mathematics, nursing, operations research and applied statistics, psychology, public administration, and sociology. Applications for other fields are considered where appropriate course work is available. Under the guidance of faculty advisers and the center's staff, entering students develop individualized programs of study.


    Admission Requirements

    In addition to meeting the general admissions requirements for graduate study, applicants must do the following:
    1. Have experience in teaching at the community college level, or have teaching at the community college level as a career objective
    2. Submit a completed application (applications are available from the National Center for Community College Education or from the Office of Admissions)
    3. Submit a short statement (750 to 1,000 words) describing his or her interest in the program and how it will help achieve career objectives
    4. Submit two writing samples if English is the knowledge area
    5. Submit GMAT scores if business is the knowledge area, and GRE scores if sociology or history is the knowledge area
    6. Schedule an interview with the staff of the National Center for Community College Education
    7. Submit three letters of recommendation
    8. Submit official transcripts of all college work
    Additional material may be required, depending on the applicant's background and teaching field.


    Degree Requirements

    The program requires a minimum of 55 hours beyond the master's degree. The basic components of the program for a faculty member holding a master's degree in the current or proposed teaching field are as follows: Minimum Requirements

    Knowledge Area 24 credits
    Core Curriculum 12 credits
    Internship 3 credits
    Doctoral Dissertation 10 credits
    Total 49 credits

    The remaining six hours are completed in one or more of the above areas or in a field related to the student's knowledge area. The designation of these six hours is determined by the Director or Associate Director of the National Center for Community College Education in consultation with the student and the knowledge area adviser. The six hours may not be used to meet the minimum requirements in the knowledge area. For example, if a student is required to take more than 24 credits in the knowledge area, the credits are in addition to the 55 credits normally required in the program.

    The number of credits assigned to the knowledge area, core curriculum, internship, and doctoral dissertation may vary for individual students within the above guidelines. Departments may require additional course work in the knowledge area when the student has completed the master's degree in a field other than the designated knowledge area or when prior academic preparation is considered inadequate.


    Knowledge Area

    The knowledge area consists of courses in the student's teaching discipline and may contain courses in related fields when appropriate and when approved by the knowledge area adviser. Each knowledge area department, working with the National Center for Community College Education, sets its own requirements, specifying a core set of courses and working with the student to develop an individualized program of study consisting of advanced course work, directed readings, and independent study. The program of study usually includes, among other courses, the following: (a) a course in the theory and philosophical concepts of the discipline, (b) a course in the research methodology by which the discipline generates knowledge, and (c) a "new developments" course that focuses on recent significant advances in the knowledge area.


    Core Curriculum

    Students must complete a minimum of 12 credits in the core curriculum including EDUC 802. EDCC 801 The Community College (3 credits) is the prerequisite course for all other EDCC and COMC courses. Each student also chooses at least three 3-credit elective courses from the list below.
    COMC 897 Directed Readings in Community College Education (1-3 credits)
    EDCC 802 Community College Teaching through Learning Styles (3 credits)
    EDCC 805 Teaching Thinking (3 credits)
    EDCC 806 Seminar in Communication Skills for Teaching (3 credits)
    EDCC 850 Research: Using Research to Improve Teaching (3 credits)
    EDCC 892 Special Topics in Community College Education (3 credits)
    EDUC 802 Leadership Seminar (3 credits)
    EDUC 840 Seminar in Adult Development and Learning (3 credits)
    EDUC/ENGL 695 Writing Across the Curriculum (3 credits)

    Internship

    Students must satisfactorily complete a minimum of three credit hours in an internship. A maximum of six credits may be earned through the internship. This may be in a teaching internship in a community college or a nonteaching internship, depending on the extent of the student's teaching experience. Nonteaching internships may be in government or business organizations in which community college graduates are employed. Internships for experienced community college faculty also may involve work in course development.


    Comprehensive Examination/Experience

    Upon satisfactory completion of all course work and the internship, a student completes either a traditional comprehensive examination or a more nontraditional comprehensive experience demonstrating the student's mastery of the knowledge area and the core curriculum. Students must satisfactorily complete the examination or experience to be advanced to candidacy for the degree. A student must complete all degree requirements within five years following the semester of advancement to candidacy.


    Doctoral Dissertation

    Upon advancement to candidacy, a student completes a written doctoral dissertation. The amount of credit assigned to the dissertation reflects the extent of the undertaking. The dissertation is synthesizing in nature and must contribute new knowledge or a reinterpretation of existing knowledge to the area being investigated. Doctoral disserations must demonstrate high standards of scholarship and the ability to engage in independent research resulting in a substantial contribution to knowledge or practice in the field.


    Advising

    All students are advised by the staff of the National Center for Community College Education. In addition, each student is assigned an adviser in the knowledge area. Working with an adviser, each student prepares a program of study and completes all program requirements.


    Residency

    Doctoral students are required to spend a minimum of two consecutive semesters, not including the summer session, in continuous registration. The doctoral program of study must include a minimum of 36 semester hours of graduate work taken at the university after admission to degree-seeking status.


    Course Work at Other Institutions

    Twelve hours of credit beyond the master's degree may, with the permission of the student's knowledge-area adviser, be applied toward the D.A. in Community College Education degree provided that the course work is relevant and appropriate to the student's program of study. Credit applied toward the degree must have been earned within six years before admission to the doctoral program. Students who have not used this provision at the time of admission to the program may, with approval, complete up to 12 hours of approved course work at other institutions while enrolled in the doctoral program, and apply these credits to program requirements.



    Graduate Certificate in Community College Education

    The graduate certificate in Community College Education is designed for master's degree graduates who are planning (or exploring the possibility of) a career in community college teaching. It combines course work on pedagogy and the community college with a teaching internship under the guidance of an experienced teacher.

    Completion of the certificate program does not guarantee the student a community college teaching position. Nonetheless, those who earn the certificate will enter competition for community college faculty positions with the advantage of having classroom teaching experience.


    Certificate Requirements

    The certificate requires 18 credits beyond the master's degree; the student may complete either 9 credits of course work and 9 credits of a teaching internship or 12 credits of course work and 6 credits of an internship. Students usually select course work from a core curriculum that focuses on applied teaching techniques. With the permission of the requisite department, however, students may substitute six credits of graduate courses in their teaching field for six credits of course work on teaching-related subjects. Core curriculum offerings include the following:
    EDCC 801 The Community College (3 credits)
    EDCC 802 Community College Teaching through Learning Styles (3 credits)
    EDCC 805 Teaching Thinking (3 credits)
    EDCC 806 Seminar in Communication Skills for Teaching (3 credits)
    EDCC 850 Research: Using Research to Improve Teaching (3 credits)
    EDCC 892 Special Topics in Community College Education (3 credits)
    Upon acceptance, all students are required to enroll in and complete EDCC 801 The Community College. A maximum of three credits may, with the permission of the National Center for Community College Education, be transferred from another institution. At least six hours of George Mason course work must be completed before the student may enroll in the teaching internship. The internship is an independent study course listed as COMC 885 Internship in Community College Education (1-6 credits).

    Students admitted to the certificate program must hold a master's degree from an accredited institution in a subject area that is taught at the community college level. (These subject areas include most arts and sciences disciplines. Please check with the National Center for Community College Education to be sure that the master's degree is applicable.) Graduate students may apply to the certificate program on the condition that they fulfill all master's degree requirements before enrolling in certificate courses.


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