THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY
AND THE NEED FOR UNIVERSAL RESPONSIBILITY
The Dalai Lama
As the twenty-first century starts, we find that the world has grown
smaller and the world's people have become almost one community. Political
and military alliances have created large multinational groups, industry
and international trade have produced a global economy, and worldwide
communications are eliminating ancient barriers of distance, language
and race. We are also being drawn together by the grave problems we face:
overpopulation, dwindling natural resources, and an environmental crisis
that threatens our air, water, and trees, along with the vast number of
beautiful life forms that are the very foundation of existence on this
small planet we share.
I believe that to meet the challenge of our times, human beings will
have to develop a greater sense of universal responsibility. Each of us
must learn to work not just for his or her own self, family or nation,
but for the benefit of all mankind. Universal responsibility is the real
key to human survival. It is the best foundation for world peace, the
equitable use of natural resources, and through concern for future generations,
the proper care of the environment.
For some time, I have been thinking about how to increase our sense of
mutual responsibility and the altruistic motive from which it derives.
Briefly, I would like to offer my thoughts.
One Human Family
Whether we like it or not, we have all been born on this earth as part
of one great human family. Rich or poor, educated or uneducated, belonging
to one nation or another, to one religion or another, adhering to this
ideology or that, ultimately each of us is just a human being like everyone
else: we all desire happiness and do not want suffering. Furthermore,
each of us has an equal right to pursue these goals.
Today's world requires that we accept the oneness of humanity. In the
past, isolated communities could afford to think of one another as fundamentally
separate and even existed in total isolation. Nowadays, however, events
in one part of the world eventually affect the entire planet. Therefore
we have to treat each major local problem as a global concern from the
moment it begins. We can no longer invoke the national, racial or ideological
barriers that separate us without destructive repercussions. In the context
of our new interdependence, considering the interests of others is clearly
the best form of self-interest.
I view this fact as a source of hope. The necessity for cooperation can
only strengthen mankind, because it helps us recognize that the most secure
foundation for the new world order is not simply broader political and
economic alliances, but rather each individual's genuine practice of love
and compassion. For a better, happier, more stable and civilized future,
each of us must develop a sincere, warm-hearted feeling of brother- and
The Medicine of Altruism
In Tibet we say that many illnesses can be cured by the one medicine
of love and compassion. These qualities are the ultimate source of human
happiness, and our need for them lies at the very core of our being. Unfortunately,
love and compassion have been omitted from too many spheres of social
interaction for too long. Usually confined to family and home, their practice
in public life is considered impractical, even naive. This is tragic.
In my view, the practice of compassion is not just a symptom of unrealistic
idealism but the most effective way to pursue the best interests of others
as well as our own. The more we - as a nation, a group or as individuals
- depend upon others, the more it is in our own best interests to ensure
Practicing altruism is the real source of compromise and cooperation;
merely recognizing our need for harmony is not enough. A mind committed
to compassion is like an overflowing reservoir - a constant source of
energy, determination and kindness. This mind is like a seed; when cultivated,
it gives rise to many other good qualities, such as forgiveness, tolerance,
inner strength and the confidence to overcome fear and insecurity. The
compassionate mind is like an elixir; it is capable of transforming bad
situations into beneficial ones. Therefore, we should not limit our expressions
of love and compassion to our family and friends. Nor is compassion only
the responsibility of clergy, health care and social workers. It is the
necessary business of every part of the human community.
Whether a conflict lies in the field of politics, business or religion,
an altruistic approach is frequently the sole means of resolving it. Sometimes
the very concepts we use to mediate a dispute are themselves the cause
of the problem. At such times, when a resolution seems impossible, both
sides should recall the basic human nature that unites them. This will
help break the impasse and, in the long run, make it easier for everyone
to attain their goal. Although neither side may be fully satisfied, if
both make concessions, at the very least, the danger of further conflict
will be averted. We all know that this form of compromise is the most
effective way of solving problems - why, then, do we not use it more often?
When I consider the lack of cooperation in human society, I can only conclude
that it stems from ignorance of our interdependent nature. I am often
moved by the example of small insects, such as bees. The laws of nature
dictate that bees work together in order to survive. As a result, they
possess an instinctive sense of social responsibility. They have no constitution,
laws, police, religion or moral training, but because of their nature
they labor faithfully together. Occasionally they may fight, but in general
the whole colony survives on the basis of cooperation. Human beings, on
the other hand, have constitutions, vast legal systems and police forces;
we have religion, remarkable intelligence and a heart with a great capacity
to love. But despite our many extraordinary qualities, in actual practice
we lag behind those small insects; in some ways, I feel we are poorer
than the bees.
For instance, millions of people live together in large cities all over
the world, but despite this proximity, many are lonely. Some do not have
even one human being with whom to share their deepest feelings, and live
in a state of perpetual agitation. This is very sad. We are not solitary
animals that associate only in order to mate. If we were, why would we
build large cities and towns? But even though we are social animals compelled
to live together, unfortunately, we lack a sense of responsibility towards
our fellow humans. Does the fault lie in our social architecture - the
basic structures of family and community that support our society? Is
it in our external facilities - our machines, science and technology?
I do not think so.
I believe that despite the rapid advances made by civilization in this
century, the most immediate cause of our present dilemma is our undue
emphasis on material development alone. We have become so engrossed in
its pursuit that, without even knowing it, we have neglected to foster
the most basic human needs of love, kindness, cooperation and caring.
If we do not know someone or find another reason for not feeling connected
with a particular individual or group, we simply ignore them. But the
development of human society is based entirely on people helping each
other. Once we have lost the essential humanity that is our foundation,
what is the point of pursuing only material improvement?
To me, it is clear: a genuine sense of responsibility can result only
if we develop compassion. Only a spontaneous feeling of empathy for others
can really motivate us to act on their behalf. I have explained how to
cultivate compassion elsewhere. For the remainder of this short piece,
I would like to discuss how our present global situation can be improved
by greater reliance on universal responsibility.
First, I should mention that I do not believe in creating movements
or espousing ideologies. Nor do I like the practice of establishing an
organization to promote a particular idea, which implies that one group
of people alone is responsible for the attainment of that goal, while
everybody else is exempt. In our present circumstances, none of us can
afford to assume that somebody else will solve our problems; each of us
must take his or her own share of universal responsibility. In this way,
as the number of concerned, responsible individuals grows, tens, hundreds,
thousands or even hundreds of thousands of such people will greatly improve
the general atmosphere. Positive change does not come quickly and demands
ongoing effort. If we become discouraged we may not attain even the simplest
goals. With constant, determined application, we can accomplish even the
most difficult objectives.
Adopting an attitude of universal responsibility is essentially a personal
matter. The real test of compassion is not what we say in abstract discussions
but how we conduct ourselves in daily life. Still, certain fundamental
views are basic to the practice of altruism.
Though no system of government is perfect, democracy is that which is
closest to humanity's essential nature. Hence those of us who enjoy it
must continue to fight for all peoples' right to do so. Furthermore, democracy
is the only stable foundation upon which a global political structure
can be built. To work as one, we must respect the right of all peoples
and nations to maintain their own distinctive character and values.
In particular, a tremendous effort will be required to bring compassion
into the realm of international business. Economic inequality, especially
that between developed and developing nations, remains the greatest source
of suffering on this planet. Even though they will lose money in the short
term, large multinational corporations must curtail their exploitation
of poor nations. Tapping the few precious resources such countries possess
simply to fuel consumerism in the developed world is disastrous; if it
continues unchecked, eventually we shall all suffer. Strengthening weak,
undiversified economies is a far wiser policy for promoting both political
and economic stability. As idealistic as it may sound, altruism, not just
competition and the desire for wealth, should be a driving force in business.
We also need to renew our commitment to human values in the field of modern
science. Though the main purpose of science is to learn more about reality,
another of its goals is to improve the quality of life. Without altruistic
motivation, scientists cannot distinguish between beneficial technologies
and the merely expedient. The environmental damage surrounding us is the
most obvious example of the result of this confusion, but proper motivation
may be even more relevant in governing how we handle the extraordinary
new array of biological techniques with which we can now manipulate the
subtle structures of life itself. If we do not base our every action on
an ethical foundation, we run the risk of inflicting terrible harm on
the delicate matrix of life.
Nor are the religions of the world exempt from this responsibility. The
purpose of religion is not to build beautiful churches or temples, but
to cultivate positive human qualities such as tolerance, generosity and
love. Every world religion, no matter what its philosophical view, is
founded first and foremost on the precept that we must reduce our selfishness
and serve others. Unfortunately, sometimes religion itself causes more
quarrels than it solves. Practitioners of different faiths should realize
that each religious tradition has immense intrinsic value and the means
for providing mental and spiritual health. One religion, like a single
type of food, cannot satisfy everybody. According to their varying mental
dispositions, some people benefit from one kind of teaching, others from
another. Each faith has the ability to produce fine, warmhearted people
and despite their espousal of often contradictory philosophies, all religions
have succeeded in doing so. Thus there is no reason to engage in divisive
religious bigotry and intolerance, and every reason to cherish and respect
all forms of spiritual practice.
Certainly, the most important field in which to sow the seeds of greater
altruism is international relations. In the past few years the world has
changed dramatically. I think we would all agree that the end of the Cold
War and the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet
Union have ushered in a new historical era. As we moved through the past
it would seem that human experience has come full circle.
This has been the most painful period in human history, a time when, because
of the vast increase in the destructive power of weapons, more people
have suffered from and died by violence than ever before. Furthermore,
we have also witnessed an almost terminal competition between the fundamental
ideologies that have always torn the human community: force and raw power
on the one hand, and freedom, pluralism, individual rights and democracy
on the other. I believe that the results of this great competition are
now clear. Though the good human spirit of peace, freedom and democracy
still faces many forms of tyranny and evil, it is nevertheless an unmistakable
fact that the vast majority of people everywhere want it to triumph. Thus
the tragedies of our time have not been entirely without benefit, and
have in many cases been the very means by which the human mind has been
opened. The collapse of communism demonstrates this.
Although communism espoused many noble ideals, including altruism, the
attempt by its governing elites to dictate their views has proven disastrous.
These governments went to tremendous lengths to control the entire flow
of information through their societies and to structure their education
systems so that their citizens would work for the common good. Although
rigid organization may have been necessary in the beginning to destroy
previously oppressive regimes, once that goal was fulfilled, the organization
had very little to contribute towards building a useful human community.
Communism failed utterly because it relied on force to promote its beliefs.
Ultimately, human nature was unable to sustain the suffering it produced.
Brutal force, no matter how strongly applied, can never subdue the basic
human desire for freedom. The hundreds of thousands of people who marched
in the cities of Eastern Europe proved this. They simply expressed the
human need for freedom and democracy. It was very moving. Their demands
had nothing whatsoever to do with some new ideology; these people simply
spoke from their hearts, sharing their desire for freedom, and demonstrating
that it stems from the core of human nature. Freedom, in fact, is the
very source of creativity for both individuals and society. It is not
enough, as communist systems have assumed, merely to provide people with
food, shelter and clothing. If we have all these things but lack the precious
air of liberty to sustain our deeper nature, we are only half human; we
are like animals who are content just to satisfy their physical needs.
I feel that the peaceful revolutions in the former Soviet Union and Eastern
Europe have taught us many great lessons. One is the value of truth. People
do not like to be bullied, cheated or lied to by either an individual
or a system. Such acts are contrary to the essential human spirit. Therefore,
even though those who practice deception and use force may achieve considerable
short-term success, eventually they will be overthrown.
On the other hand, everyone appreciates truth, and respect for it is really
in our blood. Truth is the best guarantor and the real foundation of freedom
and democracy. It does not matter whether you are weak or strong or whether
your cause has many or few adherents, truth will still prevail. The fact
that the successful freedom movements of 1989 and after have been based
on the true expression of people's most basic feelings is a valuable reminder
that truth itself is still seriously lacking in much of our political
life. Especially in the conduct of international relations we pay very
little respect to truth. Inevitably, weaker nations are manipulated and
oppressed by stronger ones, just as the weaker sections of most societies
suffer at the hands of the more affluent and powerful. Though in the past,
the simple expression of truth has usually been dismissed as unrealistic,
these last few years have proved that it is an immense force in the human
mind and as a result, in the shaping of history.
A second great lesson from Eastern Europe has been that of peaceful change.
In the past, enslaved peoples often resorted to violence in their struggle
to be free. Now, following in the footsteps of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin
Luther King, Jr., these peaceful revolutions offer future generations
a wonderful example of successful, nonviolent change. When in the future
major changes in society again become necessary, our descendants will
be able to look back on the present time as a paradigm of peaceful struggle,
a real success story of unprecedented scale, involving more than a dozen
nations and hundreds of millions of people. Moreover, recent events have
shown that the desire for both peace and freedom lies at the most fundamental
level of human nature and that violence is its complete antithesis.
Before considering what kind of global order would serve us best in the
post-Cold War period, I think it is vital to address the question of violence,
whose elimination at every level is the necessary foundation for world
peace and the ultimate goal of any international order.
Nonviolence and International Order
Every day the media reports incidents of terrorism, crime and aggression.
I have never been to a country where tragic stories of death and bloodshed
did not fill the newspapers and airwaves. Such reporting has become almost
an addiction for journalists and their audiences alike. But the overwhelming
majority of the human race does not behave destructively; very few of
the six billion people on this planet actually commit acts of violence.
Most of us prefer to be as peaceful as possible.
Basically, we all cherish tranquility, even those of us given to violence.
For instance, when spring comes, the days grow longer, there is more sunshine,
the grass and trees come alive and everything is very fresh. People feel
happy in autumn, one leaf falls, then another, then all the beautiful
flowers die until we are surrounded by bare, naked plants. We do not feel
so joyful. Why is this? Because deep down, we desire constructive, fruitful
growth and dislike things collapsing, dying or being destroyed. Every
destructive action goes against our basic nature; building and being constructive
is the human way. I am sure everybody agrees that we need to overcome
violence, but if we are to eliminate it completely, we should first analyze
whether or not it has any value.
If we address this question from a strictly practical perspective, we
find that on certain occasions violence indeed appears useful. One can
solve a problem quickly with force. At the same time, however, such success
is often at the expense of the rights and welfare of others. As a result,
even though one problem has been solved, the seed of another has been
On the other hand, if one's cause is supported by sound reasoning, there
is no point in using violence. It is those who have no motive other than
selfish desire and who cannot achieve their goal through logical reasoning
who rely on force. Even when family and friends disagree, those with valid
reasons can cite them one after the other and argue their case point by
point, whereas those with little rational support soon fall prey to anger.
Thus anger is not a sign of strength but one of weakness.
Ultimately, it is important to examine one's own motivation and that of
one's opponent. There are many kinds of violence and nonviolence, but
one cannot distinguish them from external factors alone. If one's motivation
is negative, the action it produces is, in the deepest sense, violent,
even though it may appear to be smooth and gentle. Conversely, if one's
motivation is sincere and positive but the circumstances require harsh
behavior, essentially one is practicing nonviolence. No matter what the
case may be, I feel that a compassionate concern for the benefit of others
- not simply for oneself - is the sole justification for the use of force.
The genuine practice of nonviolence is still somewhat experimental on
our planet, but its pursuit, based on love and understanding, is sacred.
If this experiment succeeds, it can open the way to a far more peaceful
world in the future.
I have heard the occasional Westerner maintain that long-term Gandhian
struggles employing nonviolent passive resistance do not suit everybody
and that such courses of action are more natural in the East. Because
Westerners are active, they tend to seek immediate results in all situations,
even at the cost of their lives. This approach, I believe, is not always
beneficial. But surely the practice of nonviolence suits us all. It simply
calls for determination. Even though the freedom movements of Eastern
Europe reached their goals quickly, nonviolent protest by its very nature
usually requires patience.
In this regard, I pray that despite the brutality of their suppression
and the difficulty of the struggle they face, those involved in China's
democracy movement will always remain peaceful. I am confident they will.
Although the majority of the young Chinese students involved were born
and raised under an especially harsh form of communism, during the spring
of 1989 they spontaneously practiced Mahatma Gandhi's strategy of passive
resistance. This is remarkable and clearly shows that ultimately all human
beings want to pursue the path of peace, no matter how much they have
The Reality of War
Of course, war and the large military establishments are the greatest
sources of violence in the world. Whether their purpose is defensive or
offensive, these vast powerful organizations exist solely to kill human
beings. We should think carefully about the reality of war. Most of us
have been conditioned to regard military combat as exciting and glamorous
- an opportunity for men to prove their competence and courage. Since
armies are legal, we feel that war is acceptable; in general, nobody feels
that war is criminal or that accepting it is a criminal attitude. In fact,
we have been brainwashed. War is neither glamorous nor attractive. It
is monstrous. Its very nature is one of tragedy and suffering.
War is like a fire in the human community, one whose fuel is living beings.
I find this analogy especially appropriate and useful. Modern warfare
is waged primarily with different forms of fire, but we are so conditioned
to see it as thrilling that we talk about this or that marvelous weapon
as a remarkable piece of technology without remembering that, if it is
actually used, it will burn living people. War also strongly resembles
a fire in the way it spreads. If one area gets weak, the commanding officer
sends in reinforcements. This is like throwing live people onto a fire.
But because we have been brainwashed to think this way, we do not consider
the suffering of individual soldiers. No soldier wants to be wounded or
die; none of his loved ones wants any harm to come to him. If one soldier
is killed, or maimed for life, at least another five or ten people - his
relatives and friends - suffer as well. We should all be horrified by
the extent of this tragedy, but we are too confused.
Frankly, as a child, I too was attracted to the military. Their uniforms
looked so smart and beautiful. But that is exactly how the seduction begins.
Children start playing games that will one day lead them into trouble.
There are plenty of exciting games to play and costumes to wear other
than those based on the killing of human beings. Again, if we as adults
were not so fascinated by war, we would clearly see that to allow our
children to become habituated to war games is extremely unfortunate. Some
former soldiers have told me that when they shot their first person they
felt uncomfortable but as they continued to kill it began to feel quite
normal. In time, we can get used to anything.
It is not only during times of war that military establishments are destructive.
By their very design, they are the single greatest violators of human
rights, and it is the soldiers themselves who suffer most consistently
from their abuse. After the officers in charge have given beautiful explanations
about the importance of the army, its discipline and the need to conquer
the enemy, the rights of the great mass of soldiers are almost entirely
taken away. They are then compelled to forfeit their individual will,
and, in the end, to sacrifice their lives. Moreover, once an army has
become a powerful force, there is every risk that it will destroy the
happiness of its own country.
There are people with destructive intentions in every society, and the
temptation to gain command over an organization capable of fulfilling
their desires can become overwhelming. But no matter how malevolent or
evil are the many murderous dictators who currently oppress their nations
and cause international problems it is obvious that they cannot harm others
or destroy countless human lives if they don't have a military organization
accepted and condoned by society. As long as there are powerful armies
there will always be the danger of dictatorship. If we really believe
dictatorship to be a despicable and destructive form of government, then
we must recognize that the existence of a powerful military establishment
is one of its main causes.
Militarism is also very expensive. Pursuing peace through military strength
places a tremendously wasteful burden on society. Governments spend vast
sums on increasingly intricate weapons when, in fact, nobody really wants
to use them. Not only money but also valuable energy and human intelligence
are squandered, while all that increases is fear.
I want to make it clear, however, that although I am deeply opposed to
war, I am not advocating appeasement. It is often necessary to take a
strong stand to counter unjust aggression. We can only judge whether or
not a conflict was vindicated on moral grounds with hindsight. For example,
we can now see that during the Cold War, the principle of nuclear deterrence
had a certain value. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to assess all
such matters with any degree of accuracy. War is violence and violence
is unpredictable. Therefore, it is far better to avoid it if possible,
and never to presume that we know beforehand whether the outcome of a
particular war will be beneficial or not.
For instance, in the case of the Cold War, though deterrence may have
helped promote stability, it did not create genuine peace. The last fifty
years in Europe have seen merely the absence of war, which has not been
real peace but a peace founded on fear. At best, building arms to maintain
peace serves only as a temporary measure. As long as adversaries do not
trust each other any number of factors can upset the balance of power.
Lasting peace can be secured only on the basis of genuine trust.
Disarmament for World Peace
Throughout history, mankind has pursued peace one way or another. Is
it too optimistic to imagine that world peace may finally be within our
grasp? I do not believe that there has been an increase in the amount
of people's hatred, only in their ability to manifest it in vastly destructive
weapons. On the other hand, bearing witness to the tragic evidence of
the mass slaughter caused by such weapons in our century has given us
the opportunity to control war. To do so, it is clear we must disarm.
Disarmament can occur only within the context of new political and economic
relationships. Before we consider this issue in detail, it is worth imagining
the kind of peace process from which we would benefit most. This is fairly
self-evident. First we should work on eliminating nuclear weapons, next,
biological and chemical ones, then offensive arms, and, finally, defensive
ones. At the same time, to safeguard the peace, we should start developing
in one or more global regions an international police force made up of
an equal number of members from each nation under a collective command.
Eventually this force would cover the whole world.
Because the dual process of disarmament and development of a joint force
would be both multilateral and democratic, the right of the majority to
criticize or even intervene in the event of one nation violating the basic
rules would be ensured. Moreover, with all large armies eliminated and
all conflicts such as border disputes subject to the control of the joint
international force, large and small nations would be truly equal. Such
reforms would result in a stable international environment.
Of course, the immense financial dividend reaped from the cessation of
arms production would also provide a fantastic windfall for global development.
Today, the nations of the world spend trillions of dollars annually on
upkeep of the military. Can you imagine how many hospital beds, schools
and homes this money could fund? In addition, as I mentioned above, the
awesome proportion of scarce resources squandered on military development
not only prevents the elimination of poverty, illiteracy and disease,
but also requires the sacrifice of precious human intelligence. Our scientists
are extremely bright. Why should their brilliance be wasted on such dreadful
endeavors when it could be used for positive global development?
The great deserts of the world such as the Sahara and the Gobi could be
cultivated to increase food production and ease overcrowding. Many countries
now face years of severe drought. New, less expensive methods of desalinization
could be developed to render sea water suitable for human consumption
and other uses. There are many pressing issues in the fields of energy
and health to which our scientists could more usefully address themselves.
Since the world economy would grow more rapidly as a result of their efforts,
they could even be paid more!
Our planet is blessed with vast natural treasures. If we use them properly,
beginning with the elimination of militarism and war, truly, every human
being will be able to live a wealthy, well-cared for life. Naturally global
peace cannot occur all at once. Since conditions around the world are
so varied, its spread will have to be incremental. But there is no reason
why it cannot begin in one region and then spread gradually from one continent
I would like to propose that regional communities like the European Community
be established as an integral part of the more peaceful world we are trying
to create. Looking at the post Cold War environment objectively, such
communities are plainly the most natural and desirable components of a
new world order. As we can see, the almost gravitational pull of our growing
interdependence necessitates new, more cooperative structures. The European
Community is pioneering the way in this endeavor, negotiating the delicate
balance between economic, military and political collectivity on the one
hand and the sovereign rights of member states on the other. I am greatly
inspired by this work. I also believe that the new Commonwealth of Independent
States is grappling with similar issues and that the seeds of such a community
are already present in the minds of many of its constituent republics.
In this context, I would briefly like to talk about the future of both
my own country, Tibet, and China.
Like the former Soviet Union, Communist China is a multinational state,
artificially constructed under the impetus of an expansionist ideology
and up to now administered by force in colonial fashion. A peaceful, prosperous
and above all politically stable future for China lies in its successfully
fulfilling not only its own people's wishes for a more open, democratic
system, but also those of its eighty million so-called "national
minorities," who want to regain their freedom. For real happiness
to return to the heart of Asia - home to one-fifth of the human race -
a pluralistic, democratic, mutually cooperative community of sovereign
states must replace what is currently called the People's Republic of
Of course, such a community need not be limited to those presently under
Chinese Communist domination, such as Tibetans, Mongols and Uighurs. The
people of Hong Kong, those seeking an independent Taiwan, and even those
suffering under other communist governments in North Korea, Vietnam, Laos
and Cambodia might also be interested in building an Asian Community.
However, it is especially urgent that those ruled by the Chinese Communists
consider doing so. Properly pursued, it could help save China from violent
dissolution, regionalism and a return to the chaotic turmoil that has
so afflicted this great nation throughout the twentieth century. Currently
China's political life is so polarized that there is every reason to fear
an early recurrence of bloodshed and tragedy. Each of us - every member
of the world community - has a moral responsibility to help avert the
immense suffering that civil strife would bring to China's vast population.
I believe that the very process of dialogue, moderation and compromise
involved in building a community of Asian states would itself give real
hope of peaceful evolution to a new order in China. From the very start,
the member states of such a community might agree to decide its defense
and international relations policies together. There would be many opportunities
for cooperation. The critical point is that we find a peaceful, nonviolent
way for the forces of freedom, democracy and moderation to emerge successfully
from the current atmosphere of unjust repression.
Zones of Peace
I see Tibet's role in such an Asian Community as what I have previously
called a "Zone of Peace": a neutral, demilitarized sanctuary
where weapons are forbidden and the people live in harmony with nature.
This is not merely a dream - it is precisely the way Tibetans tried to
live for over a thousand years before our country was invaded. As everybody
knows, in Tibet all forms of wildlife were strictly protected in accordance
with Buddhist principles. Also, for at least the last three hundred years,
we had no proper army. Tibet gave up the waging of war as an instrument
of national policy in the sixth and seventh centuries, after the reign
of our three great religious kings.
Returning to the relationship between developing regional communities
and the task of disarmament, I would like to suggest that the "heart"
of each community could be one or more nations that have decided to become
zones of peace, areas from which military forces are prohibited. This,
again, is not just a dream. Four decades ago, in December 1948, Costa
Rica disbanded its army. Recently, 37 percent of the Swiss population
voted to disband their military. The new government of Czechoslovakia
has decided to stop the manufacture and export of all weapons. If its
people so choose, a nation can take radical steps to change its very nature.
Zones of peace within regional communities would serve as oases of stability.
While paying their fair share of the costs of any collective force created
by the community as a whole, these zones of peace would be the forerunners
and beacons of an entirely peaceful world and would be exempt from engaging
in any conflict. If regional communities do develop in Asia, South America
and Africa and disarmament progresses so that an international force from
all regions is created, these zones of peace will be able to expand, spreading
tranquility as they grow.
We do not need to think that we are planning for the far distant future
when we consider this or any other proposal for a new, more politically,
economically and militarily cooperative world. For instance, the newly
invigorated forty-eight member Conference on Security and Cooperation
in Europe has already laid the foundation for an alliance between not
only the nations of Eastern and Western Europe but also between the nations
of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the United States. These
remarkable events have virtually eliminated the danger of a major war
between these two superpowers.
I have not included the United Nations in this discussion of the present
era because both its critical role in helping create a better world and
its great potential for doing so are so well known. By definition, the
United Nations must be in the very middle of whatever major changes occur.
However, it may need to amend its structure for the future. I have always
had the greatest hopes for the United Nations, and with no criticism intended,
I would like simply to point out that the post-World War II climate under
which its charter was conceived has changed. With that change has come
the opportunity to further democratize the UN, especially the somewhat
exclusive Security Council with its five permanent members, which should
be made more representative.
I would like to conclude by stating that, in general, I feel optimistic
about the future. Some recent trends portend our great potential for a
better world. As late as the fifties and sixties, people believed that
war was an inevitable condition of mankind. The Cold War, in particular,
reinforced the notion that opposing political systems could only clash,
not compete or even collaborate. Few now hold this view. Today, people
all over the planet are genuinely concerned about world peace. They are
far less interested in propounding ideology and far more committed to
coexistence. These are very positive developments.
Also, for thousands of years people believed that only an authoritarian
organization employing rigid disciplinary methods could govern human society.
However, people have an innate desire for freedom and democracy, and these
two forces have been in conflict. Today, it is clear which has won. The
emergence of nonviolent "people's power" movements have shown
indisputably that the human race can neither tolerate nor function properly
under the rule of tyranny. This recognition represents remarkable progress.
Another hopeful development is the growing compatibility between science
and religion. Throughout the nineteenth century and for much of our own,
people have been profoundly confused by the conflict between these apparently
contradictory world views. Today, physics, biology and psychology have
reached such sophisticated levels that many researchers are starting to
ask the most profound questions about the ultimate nature of the universe
and life, the same questions that are of prime interest to religions.
Thus there is real potential for a more unified view. In particular, it
seems that a new concept of mind and matter is emerging. The East has
been more concerned with understanding the mind, the West with understanding
matter. Now that the two have met, these spiritual and material views
of life may become more harmonized.
The rapid changes in our attitude towards the earth are also a source
of hope. As recently as ten or fifteen years ago, we thoughtlessly consumed
its resources, as if there was no end to them. Now, not only individuals
but governments as well are seeking a new ecological order. I often joke
that the moon and stars look beautiful, but if any of us tried to live
on them, we would be miserable. This blue planet of ours is the most delightful
habitat we know. Its life is our life; its future is our future. And though
I do not believe that the Earth itself is a sentient being, it does indeed
act as our mother, and, like children, we are dependent upon her. Now
Mother Nature is telling us to cooperate. In the face of such global problems
as the greenhouse effect and the deterioration of the ozone layer, individual
organizations and single nations are helpless. Unless we all work together,
no solution will be found. Our Mother is teaching us a lesson in universal
I think we can say that, because of the lessons we have begun to learn,
this century will be friendlier, more harmonious, and less harmful. Compassion,
the seed of peace, will be able to flourish. I am very hopeful. At the
same time, I believe that every individual has a responsibility to help
guide our global family in the right direction. Good wishes alone are
not enough; we have to assume responsibility. Large human movements spring
from individual human initiatives. If you feel that you cannot have much
of an effect, the next person may also become discouraged and a great
opportunity will have been lost. On the other hand, each of us can inspire
others simply by working to develop our own altruistic motivation.
I am sure that many honest, sincere people all over the world already
hold the views that I have mentioned here. Unfortunately, nobody listens
to them. Although my voice may go unheeded as well, I thought that I should
try to speak on their behalf. Of course, some people may feel that it
is very presumptuous for the Dalai Lama to write in this way. But, since
I received the Nobel Peace Prize, I feel I have a responsibility to do
so. If I just took the Nobel money and spent it however I liked, it would
look as if the only reason I had spoken all those nice words in the past
was to get this prize! However, now that I have received it, I must repay
the honor by continuing to advocate the views that I have always expressed.
I, for one, truly believe that individuals can make a difference in society.
Since periods of great change such as the present one come so rarely in
human history, it is up to each of us to make the best use of our time
to help create a happier wor