Impact of Plug-In Electric Vehicles on the Power Grid and Power Production

 

SYST 798

 

Final Project Report

 

 

 

 

Prepared for:

Dr. Andy Loerch, GMU

Mr. Robert Bisson, NOVEC

 

Prepared by Clean Team Members:

Justin Kenner

Rory Moore

Kale Wofford

Albert Gonzales

 

 

 

8 December 2011


 

Table of Contents

Executive Summary.. 7

1. Background and Research.. 8

2. Problem Statement.. 9

3. Architecture.. 9

3.1 Overall View... 10

3.2 Use Cases. 11

3.3 Sequence Diagram... 12

3.4 Class Diagrams. 13

4. Electric Usage Data Analysis. 15

4.1 Assumptions. 15

4.2 Data Collected.. 16

4.3 Data Used and Conclusion.. 17

4.4 Statistical Analysis. 17

5. Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Data.. 20

5.1 PEV Usage.. 20

6. Usage Scenarios. 24

6.1 Current Worst Case.. 24

6.2 Future Worst Case.. 24

7. Models. 25

7.1 CPN Tools. 25

7.2 NetLogo.. 29

8. Regulations and Incentives. 33

8.1 State and Local.. 33

8.2 Federal.. 34

8.3 Incentives. 35

9. Conclusion.. 35

10. References. 37

11. Appendix.. 38

11.1 CPN Tools Model.. 38

11.1.1 Top Level 38

11.1.2 CPN Tools Code. 44

11.1.3 Variables. 45

11.1.4 Values. 46

11.1.5 Functions: 46

11.2 NetLogo Model.. 47

11.2.1 Code for the restricted model 47

11.2.2Code for the un-restricted model 52

11.3 Back-up Charts. 58


 

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Overall View (NOVEC 2011) 10

Figure 2: Transactions with Residential Customers.. 11

Figure 3: Electricity Sales Sequence.. 12

Figure 4: Small Set of Classes.. 13

Figure 5: Class Diagram.. 14

Figure 6:Class Diagram of CPN model. 15

Figure 7: Summary of Overall 15 min data.. 18

Figure 8: Summary of Overall hourly data.. 19

Figure 9: Summary on Yearly data.. 20

Figure 10: DMV Historical Data.. 21

Figure 11: DMV Registered Vehicles in Virginia.. 23

Figure 12: Vehicles Registered over Time.. 23

Figure 13: CPN output based on 7/1/10 data.. 28

Figure 14: CPN output of % kW increase based on 7/1/10 data.. 28

Figure 15: Unrestricted charging of 200 PEVís vs. 250 Houses. 31

Figure 16: Restricted charging of 200 PEVís vs. 250 Houses. 32

Figure 17: Top Level Diagram.. 38

Figure 18: Subpage: PHEV Level1. 39

Figure 19: Subpage: PHEV Level2-L. 40

Figure 20: Subpage: PHEV Level2-M.. 41

Figure 21:Subpage: PHEV Level2-H.. 42

Figure 22: Subpage: OTHER Usage Sources.. 43

Figure 23: Subpage: Circuit. 44

Figure 24: NOVEC Yearly Electric Draw... 58

Figure 25: All Users kW consumption.. 59

Figure 26: Daily Circuit Usage.. 59

Figure 27: Overall Daily Usage.. 60

Figure 28: Circuit ID unknown.. 60

Figure 29: Circuit ID 2-1. 61

Figure 30: Circuit ID 2-4. 61

Figure 31: Circuit ID 3-1. 62

Figure 32: Circuit ID 4-1. 62

Figure 33: Circuit ID 4-2. 63

Figure 34: Circuit ID 4-3. 63

Figure 35: Circuit ID 4-4. 64

Figure 36: Circuit ID 4-8. 64

Figure 37: Circuit ID 5-1. 65

Figure 38: Circuit ID 19-1. 65

Figure 39: Circuit ID 19-2. 66

Figure 40: Circuit ID 19-3. 66

Figure 41: Circuit ID 19-4. 67

Figure 42: Circuit ID 20-1. 67

Figure 43: Circuit ID 23-1. 68

Figure 44: Circuit ID 23-3. 68

Figure 45: Circuit ID 23-4. 69

Figure 46: Circuit ID 24-1. 69

Figure 47: Circuit ID 24-2. 70

Figure 48: Circuit ID 24-4. 70

Figure 49: Circuit ID 24-8. 71

Figure 50: Circuit ID 25-2. 71

Figure 51: Circuit ID 25-4. 72

Figure 52: Circuit ID 32-3. 72

Figure 53: Circuit ID 32-12. 73

Figure 54: Circuit ID 36-1. 73

Figure 55: Circuit ID 36-2. 74

Figure 56: Circuit ID 38-2. 74

Figure 57: Circuit ID 38-4. 75

Figure 58: Circuit ID 38-8. 75

Figure 59: Circuit ID 44-2. 76

Figure 60: Circuit ID 44-4. 76

Figure 61: Circuit ID 44-5. 77

Figure 62: Circuit ID 44-7. 77

Figure 63: Circuit ID 46-1. 78

Figure 64: Circuit ID 46-2. 78

Figure 65: Circuit ID 46-4. 79

Figure 66: Circuit ID 46-5. 79

Figure 67: Circuit ID 57-1. 80


 

Executive Summary

The Clean Team has conducted a series of experiments to analyze the effects of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) on the power grid serviced by Northern Virginia Electric Cooperative (NOVEC).The team produced a Colored Petri Net (CPN) Tools model to demonstrate the effects of PEVsí charging at different rates on the power grid.A NetLogo model was created to demonstrate the effects of PEVs on the power grid in addition to providing power back into the grid.NOVEC provided all the customer usage data used in the analysis, while the Clean Team interpolated and concluded their results.

The CPN Tools model was designed to look at the architectural layout of the power circuit infrastructure and what it would look like if PEHVs were added into the day to day consumption of electricity by residential customers. The model was run giving a worst-case scenario whereby each household had one PHEV that required charging on a daily basis. The model was run to show the impact of charging at any time over a 24 hour period. The model was set up so that the number and duration of charging could be modified to visualize different scenarios. The model was also constructed to allow for the setting of a threshold to help render brown-out or black-out situations. Though deterministic in nature, the model serves as a good visualization tool for readily capturing the impacts of different levels of PHEV usage on a given power circuit.

The NetLogo model was designed to assist the analysis of future PEVs on the NOVEC service community.The model assumed a PHEV-40 Economy battery would be the standard battery for PEVís.The model also assumed that the houseís charge profile would be constant, that the grid could take electricity back from the PEVís if needed, and that the PEVís would be parked and connected to the grid 80% of the time.

As with any analysis, the results are based on the data provided at the time of the analysis along with access to public records and legislative rulings on the matter.It is the Clean Teamsí recommendation that NOVEC implement some guidelines of their own to their customers on when and how they may charge their PEVs.Since there is no global standard on the rate of charge for PEVs, a suggestion to NOVEC is to allow rate incentives to PEV owner to charge at a slow level 1 rate during off-peak hours.


 

1.  Background and Research

Despite continued development of public transportation systems and attempts at improving public accessibility, America continues to exist as a country reliant on transportation via personal vehicles.This reliance on independent transportation is particularly true for those living in suburban and rural parts of the country, where other modes of transportation may not exist or may not be convenient.

One of the most significant considerations of this wide use of personal vehicles is the reliance on petroleum based automotive fuels.In recent years, price increases and overall market volatility for petroleum based fuels has prompted much research and development in the area of alternative fuels and alternative methods for powering automobiles.While an increased use of hybrid electric vehicles has taken a small step away from reliance on petroleum based fuels by increasing efficiency and reducing the fuel used per mile traveled, ultimately these vehicles still rely on burning gasoline in order to function.As a next logical step, auto makers have focused on building vehicles able to be powered exclusively by stored electric power, sourced from the existing power grid.

Without question, replacing gasoline and other petroleum fuels with electric power will result in an increase demand for electric as seen by electricity producers and utility companies.The questions that still remain however, are how much of an increase in electric consumption can be expected, and in what time period will this impact be experienced.Ultimately the objective of this project is to quantify the impact which can be expected and propose methods for best handling the impact.

Specifically from the perspective of a utility provider, the impact of electric vehicles is of greatest concern when changes must be made in upgrading infrastructure, or when changes in usage times necessitate changes to rate structures.In many locations the existing electrical distribution infrastructure has been in place for many decades, and was originally designed and constructed to provide power to customers with much different demands.Because of the limitations of the current system, there is a genuine concern regarding what increase in load PEVs may result in, and over what period of time the full impact will be experienced.Although the widespread use of electric vehicles will most certainly not occur instantaneously, quantifying the eventual impact, and estimating a timeline for PEV use can be used to best prepare and plan for eventual system upgrades.

2.  Problem Statement

Given the normal historical use of electric utilities by residential customers, along with the likely increase in demand due to more widespread use of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs), determine whether current electrical distribution infrastructure and rate structure are adequate, and if not, determine what improvements and changes should be made.

Suggested improvements can be made by choice of physical improvements to infrastructure to increase electrical load handling capacity, through modification of utility rate structure, through implementation of PEV charging restrictions, or through some combination thereof.

 

3.  Architecture

Included below are Architectural diagrams provided to better understand the relationship between the utility provider (NOVEC) and residential power customers.

 

3.1      Overall View

Figure 1: Overall View (NOVEC 2011)


 

3.2      Use Cases

Figure 2: Transactions with Residential Customers

 

3.3      Sequence Diagram

Figure 3: Electricity Sales Sequence

 

3.4      Class Diagrams

Figure 4: Small Set of Classes

 

 

Figure 5: Class Diagram

 

Figure 6:Class Diagram of CPN model

 

4.  Electric Usage Data Analysis

4.1      Assumptions

In order to base the analysis on a representative sample population, a set of zip codes geographically located in Fairfax and Prince William Counties in Virginia were selected and current residential electric usage data was gathered.Additional demographic information on the sample area was gathered to better understand the residential customer base under review.The counties of interest are located in the suburbs east of Washington, DC, and consequently are the home of many commuters who work in a large metropolitan area and have affluence slightly above the national average.It is expected that due to the above average income, residents in these counties would be among the first in the country to adopt use of plug in electric vehicles, and be willing and able to finance the premium cost associated with new technology and new automobile models.Due to the large sample size of customers and large volume of data points gathered for each customer, it was assumed that data gained from the Sponsor would be an accurate representation for residential electricity usage across the entire Northern Virginia region.

It was assumed that the most detrimental impact due to electricity usage by PEVs would be a result of PEV usage during an already high load period.Data gathered for modeling a daily load curve covered only one monthís usage, and so July was selected as the month for analysis, since it is historically known to be a month of particularly high usage relative to the rest of the year.††

While the average impact of PEVs on electricity usage is of general interest, NOVECís particular concern involves the potential need for distribution system upgrades or changes to rate structures.NOVECís service area includes several dozen substation points where power is accepted in from the transmission grid, at which point it is stepped down for distribution to customers.Flowing out from these substations are Ďcircuití branches which serve as the means for physically getting power to customers.Any increase in consumer power usage experienced by NOVEC is primarily limited by the physical thermal capacity of the substation.Since the power flowing through each substation is simply an aggregation of its respective circuits, NOVECís greatest interest is in identifying circuits which could experience the greatest load increase, or change in load curve.

 

4.2      Data Collected

Usage data gathered for this project was provided by Northern Virginia Electric Cooperative (NOVEC).Data from NOVEC customer could be gathered from two types of data sets, high resolution (15 minute interval), and low resolution (monthly interval).

On a limited number of residential customers, meters are used that collect usage data with higher resolution than normal, specifically, providing a reading every 15 minutes for a total of 96 electric demand readings per customer per day.From these higher resolution customers, a monthís worth of data was analyzed to model the average daily usage curve and determine the periods of high load, as well as determine the actual quantity of electric used per household on a daily basis.High resolution customer data was gathered from nine different zip codes, specifically, 20109, 20110, 20111, 20120, 20124, 20155, 20169, 22030, 22039 and from a total of 98 customers.This data was taken from July 1, 2011 to July 31, 2011.

Additionally, NOVEC is able to provide data from all users on a monthly basis.This lower resolution data was requested for all other residential customers in the zip codes of interest, and used to model load curves on a seasonal and yearly level.One yearís worth of monthly data, from September 2010 to August 2011, was gathered from the nine specified zip codes, from a total of 48,997 customers.

In addition to the individual user data gathered from NOVEC, aggregated usage data for the circuits used by the high resolution sample customers was obtained to determine the potential impact to the overall system.

 

4.3      Data Used and Conclusion

Both the high and low resolution data collected from residential users was used to create daily and annual load curves, respectively.Ultimately, the usage data collected was used for determining a residential user baseline that subsequently could be impacted by estimated PEV electric loads.

As discussed previously, the most direct limitation faced in NOVECís distribution to customers exists at the substation level, where multiple circuit branches are aggregated.Keeping this in mind, and in an attempt to be of the greatest use to NOVEC, the high resolution user data collected and analyzed for sample customers was aggregated along circuit divisions.The aggregated impact of PEV use was then analyzed with respect to known load curves at the circuit level.†††

From the data gathered and follow up modeling, the load curves for residential customers were created and used to determine times which could be best used for charging of plug in electric vehicles, and which times charging may have the most detrimental impact from the utility providerís perspective.

 

4.4      Statistical Analysis

The data that NOVEC provided was put through a statistical analysis tool to assist in determining how well the sample data was representative of the whole.The data was broken down to show 15 minutes, 1 hour and monthly kW-hr usage.A 95% confidence interval was used in determining what the actual data representation would be from our sample data.The following three figures show the results:

Figure 7: Summary of Overall 15 min data

Figure 7, illustrates the 15 minute data with a mean value of 2.63 kW-hr and a standard deviation of 0.86.The P-value in this case is less than 0.005.This data was taken based on one monthsí time with 96 data points corresponding to 15 minute interval over one day.This data provided the bases for our model analysis that was conducted later on.With such a small standard deviation and P-value, it was observed that the 15 min data would be of significant importance in our analysis.

Figure 8: Summary of Overall hourly data

Figure 8, illustrates the hourly data with a mean value of 14.37 kW-hr and a standard deviation of 4.78.The P-value in this case is less than 0.024.This data was taken based on one monthsí time with 24 data points corresponding to the hours in a day.The mean value here is the kW-hr usage for the specific month the data was collected on.Here again, the standard deviation and P-value were small and with a much smaller data set to work with, it was actually the hourly data that was used to create our CPN model.With over 97% of our data falling into the 95% confidence interval, our model would be a great representation of the current usage and would provide a standard to model how PEVs would or would not impact NOVECsí customer service.

Figure 9: Summary on Yearly data

Figure 9, illustrates the yearly data with a mean value of 1522 kW-hr and a standard deviation of 539.7.The P-value in this case is less than 0.005.This data was taken based on one yearsí time with 94 data points corresponding to the sample circuits from our data.The mean value in this analysis is the monthly kW-hr usage during the year the data was collected for any user.In the yearly data versus the monthly data, the bell curve is steeper due to the usage month to month.The hourly data only looked at one month and the customers were very consistent no when they used or did not use electricity.Over one yearsí time, the usage varied from month to month, thus causing some months to be twice as high as the mean value.This was another reason to use the hourly data over one month in our model development, since the model could be run for any given month in the future.

 

5.  Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Data

5.1      PEV Usage

Unfortunately, very little historical data exists regarding the number of electric vehicles used across the country, or specifically, in the state of Virginia.Until recently, use of PEVs was limited almost entirely due to a lack of availability.Since no major automobile manufacturer produced such vehicles, only very niche markets existed for consumers to purchase PEVs or substantially retrofit existing vehicles into plug-in configurations.More recently however, both Chevrolet and Nissan have started to offer plug-in electric vehicles for sale to the public in the Volt and Leaf, respectively. These two manufacturers will soon be joined by Toyota as well, with the new Prius, plug-in model.For the purposes of this analysis project, the expected increase in use of PEVs is assumed to follow the same increase in usage patterns experienced by Hybrid Electric vehicles.While historical data on Hybrid vehicle use is also limited, a limited view of their use does exist in the form of Ďalternative fuel useí vehicle registrations.Data on the number of these special vehicle registrations was obtained from the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (Gruber).

 

 

 

Historical Data Provided by Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles

Date of Data Collection

Feb 2005

Mar 2005

May 2005

Jan 2006

Apr 2006

Jun 2006

Feb 2008

Jan 2010

Sep 2010

June 2011

Total Number of Active CF Plate Registrations Statewide that are Hybrids

†††† 8,161

†††† 8,622

†††† 8,998

†† 11,417

†† 12,381

15,205

†† 18,232

†† 22,340

†† 23,972

†† 26,627

Total Number of Active CF Plate Registrations in Select Northern Virginia Jurisdictions

†††† 7,136

†††† 7,521

†††† 7,826

†††† 9,707

†† 10,501

12,867

†† 15,396

†† 18,849

†† 20,317

†† 22,638

Total Number of Active CF Plate Registrations in Select Northern Virginia Jurisdictions that are Hybrids

†††† 6,949

†††† 7,330

†††† 7,632

†††† 9,515

†† 10,309

12,671

†† 15,194

†† 18,695

†† 20,167

†† 22,469

Increase/(Decrease) from Previous Count

n/a

†††††† 381

†††††† 302

†††† 1,883

†††††† 794

2,362

†††† 2,523

†††† 3,501

†††† 1,472

2,302

Percentage of Total Active Hybrid CF Plate Registrations Statewide that are in Select Northern Virginia Jurisdictions

85.1%

85%

84.8%

83.3%

83.3%

83.3%

83.3%

83.7%

84.1%

84.4%

 

Figure 10: DMV Historical Data

NOTE: Select NOVA jurisdictions include: Cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, Falls Church, Manassas, Manassas Park; Counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William and Stafford (these jurisdictions were selected because they are subject to the emissions inspection program pursuant to Va. Code ß 46.2-1178). All data are based on vehicle's garaged jurisdiction as registered with DMV.

Unfortunately the data included above only accounts for those vehicles which were registered as Ďalternative fueled vehiclesí, not all hybrid vehicles actually being used.Despite the limited insight which can be taken from the data, it should be noted in the period from February 2005 to June 2011 the total number of Hybrid vehicles registered in the State of Virginia increased nearly 225%.While this increase may be partially due to owners updating their registration from a standard registration to the alternative fuels registration, there clearly is a trend for more widespread use.

Specifically, it is known that as of September 30, 2011 there were 72,132 hybrid gas and electric combination vehicles, and 780 electric vehicles registered in the state of Virginia.This can be compared to a total of 6,391,396 passenger vehicles registered in Virginia, including 1,676,972 vehicles registered in Northern Virginia (Gruber).While as of June 2011, Hybrid vehicles accounted for just over 1.1% of the total number of registered vehicles in Virginia, if use of PEVs continues to expand at a rate similar to Hybrids, use of PEVs could ultimately make a significant change in the level of electricity load devoted to PEVs.

Particularly of interest in this analysis, is the percentage of Hybrid plates registered in the Northern Virginia jurisdictions.As pointed out in the background research information, it is assumed that the Northern Virginia area would be most likely to see the first impacts of new PEV use.While the Jurisdictions listed contain a significant percent of the total state population and a significant percent of the total state vehicle registrations, (approximately 26% as of June 2011), they represent a disproportionately large percent of the Hybrid vehicle registrations.Certainly, representing between 83-85% of the Hybrid registrations, while making up only 26% of the total vehicle registrations indicates that Northern Virginia would be the most likely area for adopting PEV use.

As will be discussed in further detail in the ďScenariosĒ section, much of what will determine the sale and widespread use of PEVs is the cost to purchase and operate, relative to traditional gasoline and diesel powered vehicles.It is expected that developments in battery technology and improvements in storage capacity at a lower price will improve the costs associated with purchase and operation of PEVs.While it is beyond the scope of this project to forecast the market price for gasoline and diesel fuels, it should be noted that any significant price increase in these petroleum based fuels will almost certainly make PEVs more attractive from a purely economic perspective, and will lead to greater use.As of the year 2010, it can already be witnessed that not only have the number of hybrid vehicles registered increased, but the year over year percentage increase is much greater than the year over year change in total vehicles registered.As can be seen in the data below provided by the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (Gruber), between 2007 and 2010, the total numbers of vehicle registrations in both Northern Virginia jurisdictions, and in the state as a whole, were practically unchanged.By comparison, as discussed previously, between 2005 and 2011, hybrid registrations in the state experienced a change of 225%.


 

 

 

Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles

Number of Passenger Vehicles Registered in Virginia

Year

# Vehicles Registered in NOVA

# Vehicles Registered in VA

2007

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1,606,792

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 6,320,157

2008

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1,605,811

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 6,324,372

2009

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1,609,707

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 6,306,932

2010

††††††††††††††††††††††† 1,643,796

†††††††††††††††††††††††††† 6,337,353

 

Figure 11: DMV Registered Vehicles in Virginia†††††

 

Figure 12: Vehicles Registered over Time

This comparison of registration records indicates that not only are the number of hybrid vehicles, and presumably PEVs, increasing, but also, that they are becoming a greater percent of the total registered vehicles.

 

6.  Usage Scenarios

6.1      Current Worst Case

As previously discussed, the most significant impact due to the addition of PEV use is expected to be experienced during periods already considered Ďpeak useí times.Power demand during these peak use times also can be exacerbated when paired with annual peak times.For example, as determined by the daily and annual load curves for the aggregated data, peak daily use occurs between the hours of 1:30 and 5:30 pm, and is high during the month of January during the winter season, and has an annual high use period in August.

While the current peak use times are expected to be those of most interest in the short-term and expected to see minimal impact directly related the use of PEVs, future scenarios may be altered much more significantly as a result of market forces and technology.†††††††

6.2      Future Worst Case

While a nominal expected future scenario may provide an idea of what PEVs impact may be, by creating a worst case scenario, the utility company can get a better idea of what really is within the realm of possibility regarding electric cars.

First, the assumption must be made that due to increase in the market price of petroleum based fuels, PEVs will be used to replace a much larger market share of automobile drivers.Additionally, it should be assumed that production costs for PEVs have allowed the price to become more accessible to a greater number of drivers.Given these assumptions, it can be assumed that in the future a significant percentage of all automobiles will be PEVs.

In addition, it should be assumed that due to overall population increase a greater overall number of drivers will be operating some type of automobile, many of which will likely be a PEV.

Along with increases in the number of PEVs being operated due to an increase in population, a worst case future scenario should assume an overall increase in use of electricity due to non-automobile related uses due to a greater number of homes and larger number of actual consumers.††

7.  Models

7.1      CPN Tools

CPN Tools was used to model the functional relationship between a NOVEC circuit and residential power usage associated with that circuit. The model allowed for the introduction of PHEV usage into the circuit along with historical data provided for residential usage by customer identification (ID) number. The historical data was provided by NOVEC for customers with special metering capability allowing for readings every 15 minutes. The model allowed for setting of various parameters to simulate increasing PHEV usage. Assumptions were made as to the types of charging apparatuses that were likely to be employed in the future. For Level 1 charging the assumption was that chargers at this level would require 1.2 kW/hr. For Level 2 charging, we assumed 3 distinct levels of charging capability: 3.3 kW/hr, 6.6 kW/hr, and 16.8 kW/hr (Tesla Motors has this level of charging capacity with a dedicated line installed). The model employed a multiplier for each of the four charger types to allow for adjusting the number of chargers running in the simulation. The model assumed that all chargers ran for the duration of the simulation. The simulation time was set for 24 hours or one dayís worth of data. The model was set up so that the duration of the simulation could be adjusted, depending upon the time interval being analyzed. We chose 24 hours for the purposes of the model shown in this report so that one could easily look at the impact of PHEV charging at any given time period.

For the purposes of this report, we chose to look at one circuit for a period of 24 hours. The data was from the July 1, 2010 readings. Because the residential usage data from NOVEC was provided in 15 minute intervals, the data was recompiled into hourly intervals (summing 4 consecutive 15 minute readings to obtain an hourís usage in kW). The circuit we chose was Feeder ID 24-4. This circuit had 7 customers with the 15 minute metering capability attached to it. The assumption was that these customers represented a subset that could be used to extrapolate the impact of PHEVs on the total number of customers on the same circuit. The customer IDs were:

333203011

333251016

333253032

353053056

353092041

353094066

353103057

The kW usage data for each customer was then summed up by hour to get the hourly usage for the circuit. The hourly usage data was then fed into the CPN model.

The parameters for the CPN model were set such that the model had a 24 hoursí worth of time to correspond with the 24 hoursí worth of data from the NOVEC historical usage data. The CPN model introduced 4 different types of PHEV charging capabilities to cover likely charging capabilities in the future. The four types of charging capability were broken out as follows:

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Level 1: 1.2 kW/hr

Level 2-L (low): 3.3 kW/hr

Level 2-M (medium): 6.6 kW/hr

Level 2-H (high): 16.8 kW/hr

Each charger type had the ability to set the number of its instances. For example, for the model we set the Level 1 charger number = 3. This meant that there were virtually 3 Level 1 chargers plugged into circuit 24-4, meaning that these 3 chargers drew (3 * 1.2kW = 3.6kW) 3.6kW per hour of charge time. Similarly, we set the number of Level 2-L chargers to 2 for a draw of (2 * 3.3kW = 6.6kW) 6.6kW/hr. For the Level 2-M and Level 2-H chargers, we assumed one each for a draw of 6.6kW/hr and 16.8kW/hr respectively.

The next variables we set in the model were to control the number of hours each charger was drawing from the circuit. This is not to be confused with the actual time a battery would require to be charged. What we were looking for here was to represent the draw on the circuit at any time of the day covered by the historical data fed into the model. Since we were looking at one daysí worth of data, we wished to see the impact of a charger or chargers on the circuit at any point in time for that 24 hour period. The variables set were for the start time = 0 and the finish time = 24 to match up with the historical circuit 24-4 data.

The CPN model also employed a module to represent the historical usage data. The data was fed into the simulation in pairs consisting of the time of day (hour) and the total circuit usage for that hour in kW. Also, each PHEV Charger had a charger ID so that its individual usage characteristics could be tracked (this applied to the class of PHEV only and not to the individual virtual instances. For example, if we set the number of Level1 chargers at 3 and gave them an ID = ďAĒ, then the ďAĒ would refer to all Level 1 chargers).

The modules representing the PHEV Chargers and all other sources of power usage (historical usage data) were daisy-chained such that each pass through the model represented 1 hour of usage by all of the power consumers (PHEV and non-PHEV). When the model completed running, various output formats were created to show different breakouts of the consumed power. Each PHEV Charger had a meter sink to show the total amount of power in kW consumed and the period of time of the consumption. At the top level of the model, there was a sink to capture the total time and kW per PHEV Charger broken out by charger ID and hour. Finally, a sink was added to the circuit module to show the total kW usage per hour for each PHEV charger combined with the ďnormal usageĒ conveyed from the historical data.

An arbitrary global threshold parameter was included in the model to simulate a brown-out or black-out situation caused by too much draw on the power circuit under analysis. According to the customer, this value cannot be exactly determined due to the fact that each circuit is unique in terms of its number and types of residential customers and its usage characteristics. For the purposes of this model, the threshold was set high (200kW/hr) so that the model would run uninterrupted. The reasoning behind this was to let the data speak for itself. The output generated could be added to the usage curves to show the impact of PHEV charging on the circuit and from that point, a determination could be made as to how to handle the extra load, if necessary.

The output from the model was fed into an Excel spreadsheet and graphs were created to show the original draw on the circuit from all sources and the draw on the circuit from all sources plus the PHEVs. As previously stated, there were 7 residential customer IDs on this particular circuit and the assumption was made that each of them was using a PHEV. Of course there are more than 7 residencies on this circuit, but the ones included in the data represented those customers that had the 15 minute interval meters installed. The graphs are displayed below.

 

Figure 13: CPN output based on 7/1/10 data

Figure 14: CPN output of % kW increase based on 7/1/10 data

 

7.2      NetLogo

The purpose of the simulation model was to confirm our thoughts on the effect of PEVís on the power grid, as well as examining the effects of future growth of consumer adoption of PEVís on the power grid.†† We chose NetLogo for the simulation as it is a product we had used in the past and it allowed for simple definitions of simulation objects and easy changes in the simulation objects populations for modeling their interactions.†† We decided to model four outputs with data for each hour of a day.The first was the amount of electricity all of the houses in the simulation were using from the grid for each hour.The second was the total amount of electricity PEVís were using from the grid for each hour.The third was the amount of electricity the power grid could use from plugged in PEVís for each hour.The final output was the total amount of electricity being used from the power grid for each hour of the day, which was the sum of the electricity used by houses and PEVís populating the model.††† The simulation consisted of two populations: Houses and PEVís.Houses all had the same electricity usage curve.PEVís in the simulation have the ability to use electricity from the power grid, contribute electricity to the grid, and disconnect from the grid to drive.

The PEVís populating the model all have batteries of type PHEV-40 with a battery size of 20 KW hours, 12 usable kW-hrs approximate charge time of 10.9 hours.The PEVís in the simulation were only allowed to drive if they had a 15% battery charge.This was done as it was assumed that the hypothetical PEV owner would have to take into account if they could get to their destination and back on their current charge, since they could not currently assume there would be charging capabilities outside of their home.For example a PEV owner would wait to make a trip to the grocery store until the PEV had enough charge to complete the round trip.This assumption has further implications depending on the method of charging deployed by a power company.The PEV was assumed to be parked and available for charging 80% of time.This was completed in the simulation by only allowing PEVís with the needed charge for driving a 20% chance of being driven.The PEVís in the simulation were also allowed to contribute electricity to the power grid if they had attained a certain level of charge.If a PEV had the desired level of charge of a full battery and they are not driving they contributed electricity back onto the grid.The amount of electricity contributed to the power grid by all PEVís was modeled for each hour of the day.The PEVís in the simulation stopped charging if their battery was fully charged, the battery could be depleted through driving or contribution of electricity to the power grid.

For simplicity, houses in the model were defined to have an electrical use profile modeled on the electrical usage data provided by NOVEC.Their charge for each house in the model was constant between homes and made to resemble the electrical use profile of July 1st.This was done to simplify the comparison of the variability in the effects of PEVís on the power grid to the normal power grid usage by households.In the simulation the power grid had no limitations and was assumed to have the capacity to meet any demand for electricity levied upon it.

Various scenarios were used to examine the effects of PEVís on the grid consisting of different charging methods and PEV populations.Two charging methods were used for the simulations, unrestricted and restricted charging.For unrestricted charging, if a PEV was connected to the grid and it was neither fully charged nor contributing electricity to the grid, it was using electricity from the grid.For restricted charging, PEVís normally would charge at certain times of the day, in this case low usage times from8 pm to 7 am during this time period PEVís would charge as they would with the unrestricted charge scenario.With the restricted charging scenario however if the PEVís charge level was below a certain level the PEV would charge to that level at any time of day, even during peak usage times.Other simulation scenarios were based on the population of PEVís and houses.Restricted and Unrestricted Charging scenarios were simulated with the PEV populations of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500, while the population of houses stayed at 250.The simulations were 102 times for durations of one 24 hour period and for one year in length.The graphical output for restricted and unrestricted charging for 200 PEVís is included below.The nominal case we examined was 50 PEVís in a neighborhood of 250 houses.This scenario seemed likely within the next few years.The worst case scenario was a population of 500 PEVís in a neighborhood of 250 houses, which would be very unlikely.

 

Figure 15: Unrestricted charging of 200 PEVís vs. 250 Houses.

 

Figure 16: Restricted charging of 200 PEVís vs. 250 Houses.

Once the simulation for each scenario was complete and the data for the four outputs for each hour a day was collected, it was examined using the Minitab software product.95% confidence intervals for the total PEV electricity from the power grid, and the total PEV electrical contribution to the power grid were created for each hour of a day.Tables with 95% confidence intervals for PEV electrical use and contribution to the power grid for simulations running one day and for one year are included in report submission.

As you can see from the graphs and in the included excel spreadsheet while the PEVís can have a significant impact on the power grid, the houses in the simulation still use the majority of the electricity from the grid.In the worst case scenario with 500 PEVís and unrestricted charging, the PEV charge levels never rise above 52% of the total house charge level for an hour with an average of charge level of 43.3% of that of houses in a 24 hour period.In the nominal case with 50 PEVís with unrestricted charging, the PEV charge levels never rise above 6% of the total house charge level for an hour with an average charge level of 4.8% of that of houses in a 24 hour period. The code for the NetLogo simulation is included in the appendix.

 

8.  Regulations and Incentives

As of yet, there are no regulations for Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) owners regulating when or how they may charge their vehicles.Federal government has not arrived a point where regulations and restrictions have needed to be implemented.It is up to the electricity providers in the area to determine how much electric power they can provide to their communities and when it would be appropriate for PEVs to charge.Electric providers have not yet started to restrict PEV owners from charging their vehicles during peak hours.

Critical regulatory issues will have to be resolved to enable charging stations installation, both in homes and for public use. State Public Utility Commissions will have to determine if and how to regulate public charging stations.

 

8.1      State and Local

Today both state and local governments in the NOVEC power providing areas do not have regulations governing PEV charging.State and local governments are waiting for the federal government to make laws and standards that the states will enforce.But the longer it takes for such regulations to come about, the harder it will be for electric companies such as NOVEC to keep up with the demand that will be placed on the electric grids in the future with more and more PEVs on the roads.At this moment, it is up to the electric providers to instate policy to their customers as to when and how they may be charging their PEVs, until such laws whether they are federal or state is in place.As of yet, the NOVEC communities has not seen a great demand from their PEV owners on electric draw.

In the 1990s, the Virginia state legislature enacted a bill, SB1269 requiring net metering for small solar wind, and hydroelectric systems.The law states that electric utilities will offer net metering to residential systems of 10 kilowatts or less and non-residential systems of 25 kilowatts or less.To better understand what is going on here, net metering is an electricity policy for consumers who own small renewable energy facilities (such as wind, solar power or home fuel cells) or Vehicle to Grid (V2G) electric vehicles."Net", in this context, is used in the sense of meaning "what remains after deductions".

Now that some PEVs are being equipped with large capacity batteries on them, when they are not charging and plugged into the electric grid, these batteries can act as a source of electric power back to the grid.Even though bill SB1269 does not speak of PEV batteries as a source of power, in the future there will be some discussions on how to regulate the power that PEVs provide back to the electric grid.

 

8.2      Federal

Although there are not electric regulations for PEVs at this time, congress continues to introduce legislation for promoting PEVs for the future.The future of such legislations is unclear at this time.Thus far, governments at all levels are willing to address current barriers to PEV deployment, however, expanding or continuing incentives to purchase PEVs and install charging infrastructure will show to be very difficult.Cost-effective policies that decrease the time it takes to purchase a PEV could prove popular, such as breaking down electricity regulatory barriers that unnecessarily delay home charger installations.

The United States has Title Code Section 42, Sub-section 17381, ďStatement of policy on modernization of electricity gridĒ that states that the United States will support the modernization of the Nationís electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth to include:

         Deployment and integration of distributed resources and generation, including renewable resources

         Development and incorporation of demand response, demand-side resources, and energy-efficiency resources

         Deployment of ďsmartĒ technologies (real-time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation

         Deployment and integration of advanced electricity storage and peak-shaving technologies, including plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

         Development of standards for communication and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including the infrastructure serving the grid

Under this policy, the federal government is responsible for ensuring that the electric power grid will be able to sustain and support PEVs.Government may pass this responsibility to state or local government to regulate, but until such legislation is enacted, there is no standard for electric companies and PEV usage.

Currently, the only standards being developed are those of the energy transfer connectors between PEVs and the power grid.SAE International is working on a range of standards depending on the level of charge being demanded.The level of charging refers to the electrical charging connections:

         Level I: average household outlet, 120 volts

         Level II: common household outlet used for clothes dryer, 240 volts

         Level III: under development, used for very fast charging, but will require extensive infrastructure and may lead to electric power grid impacts if not addressed

 

8.3      Incentives

Thus far, government action at all levels have influenced PEV sales and the integration of these new vehicles into the electrical grid. The Obama Administration has made an effort to stimulate the growth of the PEV market through public-private matching grants leveraging billions of stimulus dollars.Tax incentives of up to $4000 per vehicle for using conversion kits to retrofit conventionally powered vehicles, and tax incentives of between $2,500 and $7,500 per PEV (depending on battery capacity) have been implemented in some areas.With these incentives, more and more PEVs could be on the roads and needing to be charged both at home and in public area throughout the communities.

 

9.  Conclusion

Having completed a variety of analysis techniques and considering the great number of factors which could significantly impact the realized use of PEVs in years to come, a few conclusions can be made.

While the automotive market is now offering consumers the opportunity to purchase a variety of PEVs and providing a means for reducing ongoing transportation costs by replacing petroleum based fuels, the initial investment cost has clearly inhibited sales as can be seen in the number of Hybrid Vehicle sales and registrations.Using the historical information gathered for Hybrid Vehicles as an indicator of future PEV sales, no immediate concern exists regarding a widespread use of PEV or draw from the power grid.Even after years of Hybrid vehicle availability, they constitute approximately 1% of total vehicles, even in the most saturated markets.Changes in the price point of PEVs, and changes in the cost to refuel traditional vehicles could obviously result in more aggressive adoption of PEV technology, but currently there are no indicators of such a market shift.

Although the immediate impact due to the availability and use of PEVs does not pose a concern, further analysis does show that an eventual widespread adoption of PEVs can cause a significant shift in the magnitude of electricity used, and the times at which demand will be most increased.As discussed within the section explaining the CPN Tools model, assuming that some type of PEV use is adopted by nearly all homes, electric utility load curves could experience changes of more than 120% increase during the hours now considered Ďoff-peakí.Likewise, as shown in the NetLogo model, use of PEVs by nearly all households stands to make a significant impact on the total amount of electricity used.Even when adopted by nearly all homes, it should be noted however, that the loads anticipated due to PEVs still does not eclipse those loads used by other household uses.

In total, while the future adoption of PEVs may result in electric usage that is of significant concerns to utility providers, in the near term, there does not appear to be any significant need for infrastructure changes or implementation of other controlling techniques.As indicated by the NetLogo modeling, if anything, the use of restricted changing may be the best solution going forward, particularly if there are no major upsetting changes in the costs to purchase and power traditional and plug-in vehicles.†††

10.      References

NOVEC Overview; www.novec.com; August 2011

Gruber, John; Director Financial Analysis & Reconciliation, Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles, (email communication), October 26, 2011

Gruber, John; Director Financial Analysis & Reconciliation, Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles, (email communication), November 9, 2011

http://www.pewclimate.org/federal/executive/vehicle-standards

MIT. (April 8, 2010). Electrification of the Transportation System. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

http://www.serconline.org/netmetering/stateactivity.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_metering

http://en.wikipedia.org/wike/Charging_station

www.regulations.gov

http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/

http://www.nissanusa.com/leaf-electric-car/index#/leaf-electric-car/index

http://www.toyota.com/prius-plug-in/

 

 

11.      Appendix

 

11.1   CPN Tools Model

11.1.1    Top Level

Figure 17: Top Level Diagram

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 18: Subpage: PHEV Level1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 19: Subpage: PHEV Level2-L

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 20: Subpage: PHEV Level2-M

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 21:Subpage: PHEV Level2-H

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 22: Subpage: OTHER Usage Sources

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 23: Subpage: Circuit

 

11.1.2    CPN Tools Code

Colorsets:

colset RunTime = int;

(RunTime: the number of simulation hours)

 

colset ChgType = with Level1|Level2L|Level2M|Level2H;

(ChgType: the type of charger distinguished by charge rate)

 

colset DC = int;

(DC: direct current)

 

colset AC = int;

(AC: alternating current)

 

colset Signal = int;

(Signal: charger shutoff signal)

 

colset ChgTime = int;

(ChgTime: the amount of time the charger was ďonĒ)

 

colset Power = STRING;

(Power: the amount of power consumed in kW)

 

colset TimeKW = product ChgTime*Power;

(TimeKW: the Time and kW info for a charger output to its usage meter)

 

colset ChgID = STRING;

(ChgID: the alphabetic character to distinguish the level of charger Ė used to track output data)

 

colset CircuitPHEVuseStats = product ChgID*ChgTime*Power;

(CircuitPHEVuseStats: the total power draw on a circuit from PHEV charging)

 

colset Charge = int;

(Charge: the amount of hourly charge in the NOVEC use data for all customers in a given hour)

 

colset CircuitPwr = product ChgTime*Charge;

(CircuitPwr: the charge time and charge amount used to build the customer list (UserList) from the historical data)

 

colset UserList = list CircuitPwr;

(UserList: the list of customers attached to a circuit)

 

colset HrList = list STRING;

(HrList: kW usage per hour)

11.1.3    Variables

var strt, fin : RunTime;

var dcPwr : DC;

var acPwr : AC;

var shutOff : Signal;

var cType : ChgType;

var cTime : ChgTime;

var pwr,pwrTot : Power;

var chID : ChgID;

var cap: STRING;

var numChgs: INT;

var cirPwr: CircuitPwr;

var usrLst: UserList;

var hrLst: HrList;

11.1.4    Values

The values set for the scenario shown in this document. They can be changed to run other scenarios in the CPN Model:

val sTime = 0;

val fTime = 24;

val oneHr = 1;

val LVL1 = 1.2;

val LVL2L = 3.3;

val LVL2M = 6.6;

val LVL2H = 16.8;

val numLvl1 = 3;

val numLvl2L = 2;

val numLvl2M = 1;

val numLvl2H = 1;

val numSources = 5;

val drawSig = 1;

val capacity = "200.0";

11.1.5    Functions:

fun toString rl = Real.toString rl;

fun fromString stg = Option.valOf(Real.fromString stg);

fun CalcPwr(numChgs,cType,cTime) =

if cType=Level1 then LVL1*real(cTime)*real(numChgs) else

if cType=Level2L then LVL2L*real(cTime)*real(numChgs) else

if cType=Level2M then LVL2M*real(cTime)*real(numChgs) else

LVL2H*real(cTime)*real(numChgs);

 

fun GetPwr(numChgs,cType,cTime) =

1`(toString(CalcPwr(numChgs,cType,cTime))^" kW");

 

fun GetOneHrPwr(numChgs,cType) =

if cType=Level1 then 1`(toString(LVL1*real(numChgs))^" kw") else

if cType=Level2L then 1`(toString(LVL2L*real(numChgs))^" kW") else

if cType=Level2M then 1`(toString(LVL2M*real(numChgs))^" kW")

else 1`(toString(LVL2H*real(numChgs))^" kW");

 

fun CTtoStr(cType,numChgs) =

if cType=Level1 then 1`toString(LVL1*real(numChgs)) else

if cType=Level2L then 1`toString(LVL2L*real(numChgs)) else

if cType=Level2M then 1`toString(LVL2M*real(numChgs))

else 1`toString(LVL2H*real(numChgs));

 

fun CheckLoad(pwr,str) =

if(fromString(pwr)<fromString(str))

then true else false;

 

fun sumCR(pwr,pwrTot) = toString(

fromString(pwr)+fromString(pwrTot));

 

11.2   NetLogo Model

11.2.1    Code for the restricted model

globals [ grass totalcarEn totalhouseEn totalEn zero driving totalToGrid HOUR

tse ewe te ttg];; keep track of how much grass there is - added my stuff

 

;; car and houses are both breeds of turtle.

breed [car a-car];; car is its own plural, so we use "a-car" as the singular.

breed [houses house]

turtles-own [energy]†††††† ;; both houses and car have energy

patches-own [countdown]

 

 

to setup

clear-all

ask patches [ set pcolor green ]

;; check GRASS? switch.

;; if it is true, then grass grows and the car eat it

;; if it false, then the car don't need to eat

if grass? [

††† ask patches [

††††† set countdown random grass-regrowth-time ;; initialize grass grow clocks randomly

††††† set pcolor one-of [green brown]

††† ]

]

set-default-shape car "car"

create-car initial-number-car;; create the car, then initialize their variables

[

††† set color white

††† set size 1.5;; easier to see

††† set label-color blue - 2

††† set energy random 20; sets the car randomly 1 - 2x the car gain from food button

††† setxy random-xcor random-ycor

]

set-default-shape houses "house"

create-houses initial-number-houses;; create the houses, then initialize their variables

[

††† set color black

††† set size 1.5;; easier to see

††† set energy random (2 * house-gain-from-food)

††† setxy random-xcor random-ycor

]

display-labels

update-plot

end

 

to go

†† display-labels

set totalEn 0 ; reseting total energy to zero for next charge round

set totalhouseEn 0; resetting total house (house) energy to 0

set totalcarEn 0; resetting total car (car) charge to 0

set driving 1;resetting the driving flag

set totalToGrid 0; this is the energy being put on the grid by carscar-to-grid

set HOUR ticks mod 24;setting the hour of the day for each hour for a year

if not any? turtles [ stop ]

ask car [

††† move;;modified function to move car 80% of the time and subtract energy if it drives for an hour

††† eat-grass†††

††† ;;death

††† ;;reproduce-car

]

ask houses [

††† ;;move ;; my stuff - houses don't move

††† ;;set energy energy - 1;; houses lose energy as they move

††† catch-car;; my stuff house is charging

††† ;;death

††† ;;reproduce-houses

]

if grass? [ ask patches [ grow-grass ] ]

tick

set totalEn totalhouseEn + totalcarEn;;gathering all of the charge on the grid for the time incremente

update-plot

;export-world "fire.csv" ;; printing everything to CSV file

 

;display-labels

;set totalEn 0 ; reseting total energy to zero for next charge round

;set totalhouseEn 0; resetting total house (house) energy to 0

;set totalcarEn 0; resetting total car (car) charge to 0

;set driving 1;resetting the driving flag

;set totalToGrid 0; this is the energy being put on the grid by carscar-to-grid

end

 

to move;; turtle procedure

if energy > 3 [;; if car doesn't have enought juice people aint going to drive

††† if random 10 <= 1 [††† ;; car is driving, and will lose energy, will still pull from the grid for now, probably should add a flag

††††† set energy energy - 3 ;; the amount of energy the car loses from moving should this be lower than 4?

††††† set driving 5 ;;The car is driving so it can't charge

††††† rt random 50

††††† lt random 50

††††† fd 1

††† ]

]

end

 

to eat-grass;; car procedure

;; Here I am keeping track if car move (then they can't charge) total charge for a day for a car, and

;; the charge they get this hour.The totalcarEn is the amount of charge all cars have gotten this hour

if pcolor = green [

††† ;;set pcolor brown†† my stuff the grid never goes bad or loses all the energy they need

ifelse (HOUR < 7 or HOUR > 20) [†† ; to set restricted charging

;; normal charging

††† ifelse energy < 20 [†††† ;; if the car is charged to 10 i.e. full, it stops charging, 20 is full

 

††††† if driving < 2 [;; if driving is 0 car is home so it can charge and pull from grid

†††††† ††set energy energy + car-gain-from-food;; car gain energy by eating

†††††††† set totalcarEn totalcarEn + car-gain-from-food;; gathering total charge for tick

††††† ]†††††

††† ]

††† [

†††† set energy 20 ;; if the car is more then full, make it just full.

†††† set totalToGrid totalToGrid + car-gain-from-food; here we are sending energy to the grid car-to-grid

†††† set energy energy - car-gain-from-food ;; setting the car to the energy after putting to grid car-to-grid

††† ]

†††

†††

†††

];;†† end normal charging

[†† ;; start restricted charging

††† ifelse energy < 4 [†††† ;; if the car is charged to 10 i.e. full, it stops charging,ifFoodGain is ~10 the car nvr charges

 

††††† if driving < 2 [;; if driving is 0 car is home so it can charge and pull from grid

†††††††† set energy energy + car-gain-from-food;; car gain energy by eating

†††††††† set totalcarEn totalcarEn + car-gain-from-food;; gathering total charge for tick

††††† ]†††††

††† ]

††† [

†††† ; at this point the car has enough energy to drive and add to the grid, maybe add a random conditional here

†††† set totalToGrid totalToGrid + car-gain-from-food; here we are sending energy to the grid car-to-grid

†††† set energy energy - car-gain-from-food ;; setting the car to the energy after putting to grid car-to-grid

††† ]

]†† ;; end restricted charging

††† if driving > 2 [ ;; apparently the driving flag is being set by one car and not being reset before the next car tries to eat so car 1 moves, and sets the flag, but the flag stays set for car's 2 - 4?

††††† set driving 1 ;; so if I get here a car is driving, so it won't charge, now the flag is unset for the next car

††† ]

]

end

 

to reproduce-car;; car procedure†† my stuff, got rid of car reproduction

if random-float 100 < car-reproduce [;; throw "dice" to see if you will reproduce

†† ;set energy (energy / 2)††††††††††††††† ;; divide energy between parent and offspring

†† ;hatch 1 [ rt random-float 360 fd 1 ]†† ;; hatch an offspring and move it forward 1 step

]

end

 

to reproduce-houses;; house procedure†† my stuff, got rid of house reproduction

if random-float 100 < house-reproduce [;; throw "dice" to see if you will reproduce

††† ;set energy (energy / 2)†††††††††††††† ;; divide energy between parent and offspring

††† ;hatch 1 [ rt random-float 360 fd 1 ];; hatch an offspring and move it forward 1 step

]

end

 

to catch-car;; house procedure, so 50 Kw a day for a house, turn that into 3 for food for 30 kw hours at peak

††† if pcolor = green [†† ;; added my stuff so houses can eat grass and be different from car

††† ;; the total eng for houses will eaqual the current house value because I am not keeping track

††† ;; of total house/house usage over a day, I only care about how much it pulled off the grid now

††††† if HOUR = 0[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1†††††

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 1);; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 1[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1†††††

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 1);; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 2[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 5)†† ;; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 3[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy energy + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 4[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 ) ;; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 5[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 6[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 7[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 8[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

†† ]

††† if HOUR = 9[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 10[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 11[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 12[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 ) ;; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 13[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 14[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 11 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 11 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 15[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 1.75 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 1.75 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 16[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 17[;; my- this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 ) ;; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 18[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 19[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 9 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 9 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 20[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 21[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 22[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 23[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 24[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

†††

]

;;let prey one-of car-here††††††††††††††††††† ;; grab a random car

;;if prey != nobody†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ;; did we get one?if so,

;;[ ask prey [ die ]††††††††††††††††††††††††† ;; kill it

;;††† set energy energy + house-gain-from-food ] ;; get energy from eating

end

 

to death;; turtle procedure

;; when energy dips below zero, die

if energy < 0 [ die ]

end

 

to grow-grass;; patch procedure

;; countdown on brown patches: if reach 0, grow some grass

if pcolor = brown [

††† ifelse countdown <= 0

††††† [ set pcolor green

††††††† set countdown grass-regrowth-time ]

††††† [ set countdown countdown - 1 ]

]

end

 

to update-plot

set grass count patches with [pcolor = green]

set-current-plot "populations"

set-current-plot-pen "totalHouseEn"; my stuff - plotting all of the house charging for an hour

plot totalhouseEn†† ;my stuff - plotting all of the house charging for an hour

set-current-plot-pen "totalCarEn"; my stuff - plotting all of the car charging for an hour

plot totalcarEn†† ;my stuff - plotting all of the car charging for an hour

set-current-plot-pen "totalEn"; my stuff - plotting all of the charging for an hour

plot totalEn†† ;my stuff - plotting all of the charging for an hour

set-current-plot-pen "totalToGrid"; car-to-grid

plot totalToGrid ; car-to-grid

end

 

to display-labels

ask turtles [ set label "" ]

if show-energy? [

††† ask houses [ set label round energy ]

††† ask car [ set label round energy ]

]

end

 

 

; Copyright 1997 Uri Wilensky. All rights reserved.

; The full copyright notice is in the Information tab.

 

11.2.2    Code for the un-restricted model

globals [ grass totalcarEn totalhouseEn totalEn zero driving totalToGrid HOUR

tse ewe te ttg];; keep track of how much grass there is - added my stuff

 

;; car and houses are both breeds of turtle.

breed [car a-car];; car is its own plural, so we use "a-car" as the singular.

breed [houses house]

turtles-own [energy]†††††† ;; both houses and car have energy

patches-own [countdown]

 

 

to setup

clear-all

ask patches [ set pcolor green ]

;; check GRASS? switch.

;; if it is true, then grass grows and the car eat it

;; if it false, then the car don't need to eat

if grass? [

††† ask patches [

††††† set countdown random grass-regrowth-time ;; initialize grass grow clocks randomly

††††† set pcolor one-of [green brown]

††† ]

]

set-default-shape car "car"

create-car initial-number-car;; create the car, then initialize their variables

[

††† set color white

††† set size 1.5;; easier to see

††† set label-color blue - 2

††† set energy random 20; sets the car randomly 1 - 2x the car gain from food button

††† setxy random-xcor random-ycor

]

set-default-shape houses "house"

create-houses initial-number-houses;; create the houses, then initialize their variables

[

††† set color black

††† set size 1.5;; easier to see

††† set energy random (2 * house-gain-from-food)

††† setxy random-xcor random-ycor

]

display-labels

update-plot

end

 

to go

†† display-labels

set totalEn 0 ; reseting total energy to zero for next charge round

set totalhouseEn 0; resetting total house (house) energy to 0

set totalcarEn 0; resetting total car (car) charge to 0

set driving 1;resetting the driving flag

set totalToGrid 0; this is the energy being put on the grid by carscar-to-grid

set HOUR ticks mod 24;setting the hour of the day for each hour for a year

if not any? turtles [ stop ]

ask car [

††† move;;modified function to move car 80% of the time and subtract energy if it drives for an hour

††† eat-grass†††

†† ;;death

††† ;;reproduce-car

]

ask houses [

††† ;;move ;; my stuff - houses don't move

††† ;;set energy energy - 1;; houses lose energy as they move

††† catch-car;; my stuff house is charging

††† ;;death

††† ;;reproduce-houses

]

if grass? [ ask patches [ grow-grass ] ]

tick

set totalEn totalhouseEn + totalcarEn;;gathering all of the charge on the grid for the time incremente

update-plot

;export-world "fire.csv" ;; printing everything to CSV file

 

;display-labels

;set totalEn 0 ; reseting total energy to zero for next charge round

;set totalhouseEn 0; resetting total house (house) energy to 0

;set totalcarEn 0; resetting total car (car) charge to 0

;set driving 1;resetting the driving flag

;set totalToGrid 0; this is the energy being put on the grid by carscar-to-grid

end

 

to move;; turtle procedure

if energy > 3 [;; if car doesn't have enought juice people aint going to drive

††† if random 10 <= 1 [††† ;; car is driving, and will lose energy, will still pull from the grid for now, probably should add a flag

††††† set energy energy - 3 ;; the amount of energy the car loses from moving should this be lower than 4?

††††† set driving 5 ;;The car is driving so it can't charge

††††† rt random 50

††††† lt random 50

††††† fd 1

††† ]

]

end

 

to eat-grass;; car procedure

;; Here I am keeping track if car move (then they can't charge) total charge for a day for a car, and

;; the charge they get this hour.The totalcarEn is the amount of charge all cars have gotten this hour

if pcolor = green [

††† ;;set pcolor brown†† my stuff the grid never goes bad or loses all the energy they need

 

;; normal charging

††† ifelse energy < 20 [†††† ;; if the car is charged to 10 i.e. full, it stops charging, 20 is full

 

††††† if driving < 2 [;; if driving is 0 car is home so it can charge and pull from grid

†††††††† set energy energy + car-gain-from-food;; car gain energy by eating

†††††††† set totalcarEn totalcarEn + car-gain-from-food;; gathering total charge for tick

††††† ]†††††

††† ]

††† [

†††† set energy 20 ;; if the car is more then full, make it just full.

†††† set totalToGrid totalToGrid + car-gain-from-food; here we are sending energy to the grid car-to-grid

†††† set energy energy - car-gain-from-food ;; setting the car to the energy after putting to grid car-to-grid

††† ]

†††

††† if driving > 2 [ ;; apparently the driving flag is being set by one car and not being reset before the next car tries to eat so car 1 moves, and sets the flag, but the flag stays set for car's 2 - 4?

††††† set driving 1 ;; so if I get here a car is driving, so it won't charge, now the flag is unset for the next car

††† ]

]

end

 

to reproduce-car;; car procedure†† my stuff, got rid of car reproduction

if random-float 100 < car-reproduce [;; throw "dice" to see if you will reproduce

†† ;set energy (energy / 2)††††††††††††††† ;; divide energy between parent and offspring

†† ;hatch 1 [ rt random-float 360 fd 1 ]†† ;; hatch an offspring and move it forward 1 step

]

end

 

to reproduce-houses;; house procedure†† my stuff, got rid of house reproduction

if random-float 100 < house-reproduce [;; throw "dice" to see if you will reproduce

††† ;set energy (energy / 2)†††††††††††††† ;; divide energy between parent and offspring

††† ;hatch 1 [ rt random-float 360 fd 1 ];; hatch an offspring and move it forward 1 step

]

end

 

to catch-car;; house procedure, so 50 Kw a day for a house, turn that into 3 for food for 30 kw hours at peak

†† if pcolor = green [†† ;; added my stuff so houses can eat grass and be different from car

††† ;; the total eng for houses will eaqual the current house value because I am not keeping track

††† ;; of total house/house usage over a day, I only care about how much it pulled off the grid now

†††††† if HOUR = 0[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1†††††

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + (house-gain-from-food * 4);; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 1[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1†††††

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + (house-gain-from-food * 4);; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 2[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + (house-gain-from-food * 1.25)†† ;; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 3[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy energy + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 4[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 ) ;; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 5[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 6[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 7[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 8[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

†† ]

††† if HOUR = 9[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + (house-gain-from-food * 1.25 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 10[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 11[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 12[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 ) ;; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 13[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 14[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 11 )†† ;; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 11 )†† ;; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 15[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 1.75 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + (house-gain-from-food * 1.75 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 16[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 17[;; my- this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 ) ;; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 18[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 19[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 9 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 9 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 20[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 21[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 22[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 6 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 23[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 5 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + (house-gain-from-food * 5 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

††† if HOUR = 24[;; my stuff - this will be the houses charge profile for hour 1

†††††† set energy ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; car gain energy by eating

†††††† set totalhouseEn totalhouseEn + ( house-gain-from-food * 4 );; gathering total charge for tick

††† ]

†††

]

;;let prey one-of car-here††††††††††††††† ††††;; grab a random car

;;if prey != nobody†††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ;; did we get one?if so,

;;[ ask prey [ die ]††††††††††††††††††††††††† ;; kill it

;;††† set energy energy + house-gain-from-food ] ;; get energy from eating

end

 

to death;; turtle procedure

;; when energy dips below zero, die

if energy < 0 [ die ]

end

 

to grow-grass;; patch procedure

;; countdown on brown patches: if reach 0, grow some grass

if pcolor = brown [

††† ifelse countdown <= 0

††††† [ set pcolor green

††††††† set countdown grass-regrowth-time ]

††††† [ set countdown countdown - 1 ]

]

end

 

to update-plot

set grass count patches with [pcolor = green]

set-current-plot "populations"

set-current-plot-pen "totalHouseEn"; my stuff - plotting all of the house charging for an hour

plot totalhouseEn†† ;my stuff - plotting all of the house charging for an hour

set-current-plot-pen "totalCarEn"; my stuff - plotting all of the car charging for an hour

plot totalcarEn†† ;my stuff - plotting all of the car charging for an hour

set-current-plot-pen "totalEn"; my stuff - plotting all of the charging for an hour

plot totalEn†† ;my stuff - plotting all of the charging for an hour

set-current-plot-pen "totalToGrid"; car-to-grid

plot totalToGrid ; car-to-grid

end

 

to display-labels

ask turtles [ set label "" ]

if show-energy? [

††† ask houses [ set label round energy ]

††† ask car [ set label round energy ]

]

end

 

; Copyright 1997 Uri Wilensky. All rights reserved.

; The full copyright notice is in the Information tab.

 

 


 

11.3   Back-up Charts

Figure 24: NOVEC Yearly Electric Draw

 

Figure 25: All Users kW consumption

Figure 26: Daily Circuit Usage

 

Figure 27: Overall Daily Usage

Figure 28: Circuit ID unknown

 

Figure 29: Circuit ID 2-1

Figure 30: Circuit ID 2-4

 

Figure 31: Circuit ID 3-1

Figure 32: Circuit ID 4-1

 

Figure 33: Circuit ID 4-2

Figure 34: Circuit ID 4-3

 

Figure 35: Circuit ID 4-4

Figure 36: Circuit ID 4-8

 

Figure 37: Circuit ID 5-1

Figure 38: Circuit ID 19-1

Figure 39: Circuit ID 19-2

Figure 40: Circuit ID 19-3

Figure 41: Circuit ID 19-4

Figure 42: Circuit ID 20-1

Figure 43: Circuit ID 23-1

Figure 44: Circuit ID 23-3

Figure 45: Circuit ID 23-4

Figure 46: Circuit ID 24-1

Figure 47: Circuit ID 24-2

Figure 48: Circuit ID 24-4

Figure 49: Circuit ID 24-8

Figure 50: Circuit ID 25-2

Figure 51: Circuit ID 25-4

Figure 52: Circuit ID 32-3

Figure 53: Circuit ID 32-12

Figure 54: Circuit ID 36-1

Figure 55: Circuit ID 36-2

Figure 56: Circuit ID 38-2

Figure 57: Circuit ID 38-4

Figure 58: Circuit ID 38-8

Figure 59: Circuit ID 44-2

Figure 60: Circuit ID 44-4

 

Figure 61: Circuit ID 44-5

Figure 62: Circuit ID 44-7

Figure 63: Circuit ID 46-1

Figure 64: Circuit ID 46-2

Figure 65: Circuit ID 46-4

Figure 66: Circuit ID 46-5

Figure 67: Circuit ID 57-1